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Geomechanics and Engineering
  Volume 10, Number 4, April 2016, pages 471-526
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12989/gae.2016.10.4.471
 


Numerical analysis of water flow characteristics after inrushing from the tunnel floor in process of karst tunnel excavation
S.C. Li, J. Wu, Z.H. Xu, L.P. Li, X. Huang, Y.G. Xue and Z.C. Wang

 
Abstract
    In order to investigate water flow characteristics after inrushing in process of karst tunnel excavation, numerical simulations for five case studies of water inrush from the tunnel floor are carried out by using the FLUENT software on the background of Qiyueshan high risk karst tunnel. Firstly, the velocity-distance curves and pressure-distance curves are drawn by selecting a series of probing lines in a plane. Then, the variation characteristics of velocity and pressure are analyzed and the respective optimized escape routes are made. Finally, water flow characteristics after inrushing from the tunnel floor are discussed and summarized by comparing case studies under the conditions of different water-inrush positions and excavation situations. The results show that: (1) Tunnel constructors should first move to the tunnel side wall and then escape quickly when water inrush happens. (2) Tunnel constructors must not stay at the intersection area of the cross passage and tunnels when escaping. (3) When water inrush from floor happens in the left tunnel, if tunnel constructors meet the cross passage during escaping, they should pass through it rapidly, turn to the right tunnel and run to the entrance. (4) When water inrush from floor happens in the left tunnel, if there is not enough time to escape, tunnel constructors can run to the trolley and other equipment in the vicinity of the right tunnel working face. In addition, some rescuing equipment can be set up at the high location of the cross passage. (5) When water inrush from floor happens in the cross passage, tunnel constructors should move to the tunnel side wall quickly, turn to the tunnel without water inrush and run to the entrance. (6) When water inrush from floor happens in the cross passage, if there is not enough time to escape, tunnel constructors can run to the trolley and other equipment near by the left or the right tunnel working face. The results are of important practical significance and engineering value to ensure the safety of tunnel construction.
 
Key Words
    water inrush; velocity; pressure; flow characteristic; optimized escape routes; karst tunnel
 
Address
Geotechnical and Structural Engineering Research Center, Shandong University, Ji'nan 250061, Shandong, China.
 

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