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Earthquakes and Structures
  Volume 8, Number 6, June 2015, pages 1325-1348

Numerical assessment of step-by-step integration methods in the paradigm of real-time hybrid testing
Mohit Verma, J. Rajasankar and Nagesh R. Iyer

    Real-time hybrid testing (RTHT) involves virtual splitting of the structure into two parts: physical substructure that contains the key region of interest which is tested in a laboratory and numerical substructure that contains the remaining part of the structure in the form of a numerical model. This paper numerically assesses four step-by-step integration methods (Central difference method (CDM), Operator splitting method (OSM), Rosenbrock based method (RBM) and CR-integration method (CR)) which are widely used in RTHT. The methods have been assessed in terms of stability and accuracy for various realistic damping ratios of the physical substructure. The stability is assessed in terms of the spectral radii of the amplification matrix while the accuracy in terms of numerical damping and period distortion. In order to evaluate the performance of the methods, five carefully chosen examples have been studied - undamped SDOF, damped SDOF, instantaneous softening, instantaneous hardening and hysteretic system. The performance of the methods is measured in terms of a non-dimensional error index for displacement and velocity. Based on the error indices, it is observed that OSM and RBM are robust and performs fairly well in all the cases. CDM performed well for undamped SDOF system. CR method can be used for the system showing softening behaviour. The error indices indicate that accuracy of OSM is more than other method in case of hysteretic system. The accuracy of the results obtained through time integration methods for different damping ratios of the physical substructure is addressed in the present study. In the presence of a number of integration methods, it is preferable to have criteria for the selection of the time integration scheme. As such criteria are not available presently, this paper attempts to fill this gap by numerically assessing the four commonly used step-by-step methods.
Key Words
    performance assessment; real-time hybrid testing; step-by-step integration; stability; accuracy
Mohit Verma, J. Rajasankar and Nagesh R. Iyer: Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research, New Delhi, India

Mohit Verma, J. Rajasankar: CSIR-Structural Engineering Research Centre, Chennai, India

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