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Earthquakes and Structures
  Volume 3, Number 2, April 2012 , pages 141-168

Retrofit Yield Spectra–a practical device in seismic rehabilitation
G.E. Thermou, A.S. Elnashai and S.J. Pantazopoulou

    The Retrofit Yield Spectrum (RYS) is a new spectrum-based device that relates seismic demand of a retrofitted structure with the fundamental design parameters of the retrofit. This is obtained from superposition of Yield Point Spectra with design charts that summarize in pertinent spectrumcompatible coordinates the attributes of a number of alternative retrofit scenarios. Therefore, once the requirements for upgrading a given structure have been determined, the RYS enable direct insight of the sensitivity of the seismic response of the upgraded structure to the preliminary design decisions made while establishing the retrofit plan. By virtue of their spectrum-based origin, RYS are derived with reference to a single mode of structural vibration; a primary objective is to control the contribution of this mode in the retrofit design so as to produce a desirable distribution of damage at the ultimate limit state by removing soft storey formations and engaging the maximum number of structural members in deformation, in response to the input motion. Calculations are performed with reference to the yield-point, where secant stiffness is proportional to the flexural strength of reinforced concrete members. Derivation and use of the Retrofit Yield Spectra (RYS) refers to the seismic demand expressed either in terms of spectral acceleration, spectral displacement or interstory drift, at yield of the first storey. A reinforced concrete building that has been tested in full scale to a sequence of simulated earthquake excitations is used in the paper as a demonstration case study to examine the effectiveness of the proposed methodology.
Key Words
    retrofit; spectra; seismic upgrading; yielding; ductility
G.E. Thermou: Department of Civil Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece
A.S. Elnashai: Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign,
2129e Newmark Lab., 205 N. Mathews Ave, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
S.J. Pantazopoulou: Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Cyprus, 1678 Nicosia, Cyprus
(on unpaid leave from D.U.Th., Greece)

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