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Earthquakes and Structures
  Volume 25, Number 1, July 2023 , pages 27-41

Site response analysis using true coupled constitutive models for liquefaction triggering
Cristhian C. Mendoza-Bolaños, Andrés Salas-Montoya, Oscar H. Moreno-Torres and Arturo I. Villegas-Andrade

    This study focused on nonlinear effective stress site response analysis using two coupled constitutive models, that is, the DM model (Dafalias and Manzari 2004), which incorporated a simple plasticity sand model accounting for fabric change effects, and the PMDY03 model (Khosravifar et al. 2018), that is, a 3D model for earthquake-induced liquefaction triggering and postliquefaction response. A detailed parametric study was conducted to validate the effectiveness of nonlinear site response analysis and porewater pressure (PWP) generation through a true coupled formulation for assessing the initiation of liquefaction at ground level. The coupled models demonstrated accurate prediction of liquefaction triggering, which was in line with established empirical liquefaction triggering relations in published databases. Several limitations were identified in the evaluation of liquefaction using the cyclic stress method, despite its widespread implementation for calculating liquefaction triggering. Variations in shear stiffness, represented by changes in shear wave velocity (Vs1), exerted the most significant influence on site response. The study further indicated that substantial differences in response spectra between nonlinear total stress and nonlinear effective stress analyses primarily occurred when liquefaction was triggered or on the verge of being triggered, as shown by excess PWP ratios approaching unity. These differences diminished when liquefaction occurred towards the later stages of intense shaking. The soil response was predominantly influenced by the higher stiffness values present prior to liquefaction. A key contribution of this study was to validate the criteria used to assess the triggering of level-ground liquefaction using true coupled effective-stress constitutive models, while also confirming the reliability of numerical approximations including the PDMY03 and DM models. These models effectively captured the principal characteristics of liquefaction observed in field tests and laboratory experiments.
Key Words
    calibration parameters; CRR; parametric study; porewater pressure; unidirectional shaking
Cristhian C. Mendoza-Bolaños and Andrés Salas-Montoya: Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Department of Civil Engineering, Manizales, Colombia
Oscar H. Moreno-Torres: 1) Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Department of Civil Engineering, Manizales, Colombia, 2) Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia, Department of Civil Engineering, Santa Marta, Colombia, 3) Universidad del Magdalena, Department of Civil Engineering, Santa Marta, Colombia
Arturo I. Villegas-Andrade: Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia, Department of Civil Engineering, Santa Marta, Colombia

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