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Earthquakes and Structures
  Volume 21, Number 5, November 2021 , pages 531-549
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12989/eas.2021.21.5.531
 

 open access

Seismic analysis and performance for stone Pagoda Structure under Gyeongju earthquake in Korea
Ho-Soo Kim, Dong-Kwan Kim and Geon-Woo Jeon

 
Abstract
    Analytical models were developed and seismic behaviors were analyzed for a three-story stone pagoda at the Cheollyongsa temple site, which was damaged by the Gyeongju earthquake of 2016. Both finite and discrete element modeling were used and the analysis results were compared to the actual earthquake damage. Vulnerable parts of stone pagoda structure were identified and their seismic behaviors via sliding, rocking, and risk analyses were verified. In finite and discrete element analyses, the 3F main body stone was displaced uniaxially by 60 and 80 mm, respectively, similar to the actual displacement of 90 mm resulting from the earthquake. Considering various input conditions such as uniaxial excitation and soil-structure interaction, as well as seismic components and the distance from the epicenter, both models yielded reasonable and applicable results. The Gyeongju earthquake exhibited extreme short-period characteristics; thus, short-period structures such as stone pagodas were seriously damaged. In addition, we found that sliding occurred in the upper parts because the vertical load was low, but rocking predominated in the lower parts because most structural members were slender. The third-floor main body and roof stones were particularly vulnerable because some damage occurred when the sliding and rocking limits were exceeded. Risk analysis revealed that the probability of collapse was minimal at 0.1 g, but exceeded 80% at above 0.3 g. The collapse risks at an earthquake peak ground acceleration of 0.154 g at the immediate occupancy, life safety, and collapse prevention levels were 90%, 52%, and 6% respectively. When the actual damage was compared with the risk analysis, the stone pagoda retained earthquake-resistant performance at the life safety level.
 
Key Words
    analytical model; discrete element analysis; finite element analysis; Gyeongju earthquake; seismic performance; stone pagoda
 
Address
Ho-Soo Kim:Department of Architectural Engineering, Cheongju University, 298, Daeseong-ro, Cheongwon-gu, Cheongju-si, Chungcheongbuk-do,Republic of Korea

Dong-Kwan Kim:Department of Architectural Engineering, Cheongju University, 298, Daeseong-ro, Cheongwon-gu, Cheongju-si, Chungcheongbuk-do,Republic of Korea

Geon-Woo Jeon:Department of Architectural Engineering, Cheongju University, 298, Daeseong-ro, Cheongwon-gu, Cheongju-si, Chungcheongbuk-do,Republic of Korea
 

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