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Earthquakes and Structures
  Volume 16, Number 3, March 2019, pages 265-277

Computational evaluation of experimental methodologies of out-of-plane behavior of framed-walls with openings
Filip Anic, Davorin Penava, Lars Abrahamczyk and Vasilis Sarhosis

    Framed masonry wall structures represent a typical high-rise structural system that are also seismically vulnerable. During ground motions, they are excited in both in-plane and out-of-plane terms. The interaction between the frame and the infill during ground motion is a highly investigated phenomenon in the field of seismic engineering. This paper presents a numerical investigation of two distinct static out-of-plane loading methods for framed masonry wall models. The first and most common method is uniformly loaded infill. The load is generally induced by the airbag. The other method is similar to in-plane push-over method, involves loading of the frame directly, not the infill. Consequently, different openings with the same areas and various placements were examined. The numerical model is based on calibrated in-plane bare frame models and on calibrated wall models subjected to OoP bending. Both methods produced widely divergent results in terms of load bearing capabilities, failure modes, damage states etc. Summarily, uniform load on the panel causes more damage to the infill than to the frame; openings do influence structures behavior; three hinged arching action is developed; and greater resistance and deformations are obtained in comparison to the frame loading method. Loading the frame causes the infill to bear significantly greater damage than the infill; infill and openings only influence the behavior after reaching the peak load; infill does not influence initial stiffness; models with opening fail at same inter-storey drift ratio as the bare frame model.
Key Words
    computational evaluation; experimental methodologies; out-of-plane behavior; framed-masonry walls; openings
Filip Anic, Davorin Penava: Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture Osijek, Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, Osijek 31000, Croatia
Lars Abrahamczyk: Earthquake Damage Analysis Centre (EDAC), Bauhaus-Universität Weimar, Weimar D-99421, Germany
Vasilis Sarhosis: School of Engineering, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE4 5TG, UK

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