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Computers and Concrete
  Volume 29, Number 4, April 2022 , pages 263-278
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12989/cac.2022.29.4.263
 


Effect of limestone calcined clay cement (LC3) on the fire safety of concrete structures
Sanchit Gupta, Dheerendra Singh, Trilok Gupta and Sandeep Chaudhary

 
Abstract
    Limestone calcined clay cement (LC3) is a low carbon alternative to conventional cement. Literature shows that using limestone and calcined clay in LC3 increases the thermal degradation of LC3 pastes and can increase the magnitude of fire risk in LC3 concrete structures. Higher thermal degradation of LC3 paste prompts this study toward understanding the fire performance of LC3 concrete and the associated magnitude of fire risk. For fire performance, concrete prepared using ordinary Portland cement (OPC), pozzolanic Portland cement (PPC) and LC3 were exposed to 16 scenarios of different elevated temperatures (400oC, 600oC, 800oC, and 1000oC) for different durations (0.5 h, 1 h, 2 h, and 4 h). After exposure to elevated temperatures, mass loss, residual ultrasonic pulse velocity (rUPV) and residual compressive strength (rCS) were measured as the residual properties of concrete. XRD (X-ray diffraction), TGA (thermogravimetric analysis) and three-factor ANOVA (analysis of variance) are also used to compare the fire performance of LC3 with OPC and PPC. Monte Carlo simulation has been used to assess the magnitude of fire risk in LC3 structures and devise recommendations for the robust application of LC3. Results show that LC3 concrete has weaker fire performance, with average rCS being 11.06% and 1.73% lower than OPC and PPC concrete. Analysis of 106 fire scenarios, in Indian context, shows lower rCS and higher failure probability for LC3 (95.05%, 2.22%) than OPC (98.16%, 0.22%) and PPC (96.48%, 1.14%). For robust application, either LC3 can be restricted to residential and educational structures (failure probability <0.5%), or LC3 can have reserve strength (factor of safety >1.08).
 
Key Words
    exposure duration; exposure temperature; fire risk; fire scenario; LC3 concrete; Monte Carlo simulation; residual strength; three-factor ANOVA
 
Address
Sanchit Gupta: Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Indore, Simrol, Indore 453552, India
Dheerendra Singh: Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Indore, Simrol, Indore 453552, India
Trilok Gupta: Department of Civil Engineering, College of Technology and Engineering, MPUAT, Udaipur, India
Sandeep Chaudhary: Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Indore, Simrol, Indore 453552, India
 

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