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Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering
  Volume 4, Number 1, March 2019 , pages 021-32

Hydroxyapatite prepared from eggshell and mulberry leaf extract by precipitation method
Shih-Ching Wu, Hsueh-Chuan Hsu, Shih-Kuang Hsu, Mei-Yi Liu and Wen-Fu Ho

    Eggshell is a waste material after the usage of egg. In this work, biowaste chicken eggshells were used for preparing carbonated hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles of high purity through aqueous precipitation method at room temperature. The eggshell-derived HA will be a cost-effective bioceramics for biomedical applications and an effective material-recycling technology. Additionally, mulberry leaf extract was used as a template to regulate the morphology, size and crystallinity of HA, and the effects of pH value were also examined. Characterization of the samples was performed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to determine the size, shape and morphology of HA. The results indicate that only one phase of HA were synthesized in the both absence and presence of mulberry leaf extract at pH of 7 and above, while DCPD or DCPA/DCPD phase was observed at pH 4 condition. The crystallite sizes of the HA samples obviously decreased when adding mulberry leaf extract as a template, while they decreased gradually as the solution pH levels increased. With increasing pH level from 7 to 14, the rod-like HA nanoparticles gradually changed to spherical shape at pH 14. Note that, the obtained product is Mg and Sr containing A- and B-type carbonate HA at alkaline pH and it can be a potential material for biomedical applications.
Key Words
    eggshell; mulberry leaf extract; hydroxyapatite; precipitation method; pH value
Shih-Ching Wu, Hsueh-Chuan Hsu, Shih-Kuang Hsu:Department of Dental Technology and Materials Science, Central Taiwan University of
Science and Technology, 666, Buzih Rd., Beitun District, Taichung 40601, Taiwan

Mei-Yi Liu and Wen-Fu Ho: Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National University of Kaohsiung, Kaohsiung, 700 Kaohsiung University Rd., Nanzih District, Kaohsiung 81148, Taiwan

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