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Advances in Environmental Research
  Volume 9, Number 1, March 2020, pages 1-17
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12989/aer.2020.9.1.001
 
open access

Review of advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) for treatment of pharmaceutical wastewater
Manisha Verma and A. K. Haritash

 
Abstract
    Pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) have become an environmental havoc in last few decades with reported cases of antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic resistant genes (ARGs), lethal effects over aquatic organisms, interference in natural decomposition of organic matter, reduced diversity of microbial communities in different environmental compartments, inhibition of growth of microbes resulting in reduced rate of nutrient cycling, hormonal imbalance in exposed organisms etc. Owing to their potential towards bioaccumulation and persistent nature, these compounds have longer residence time and activity in environment. The conventional technologies of wastewater treatment have got poor efficiency towards removal/degradation of PhACs and therefore, modern techniques with efficient, cost-effective and environment-friendly operation need to be explored. Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) like Photocatalysis, Fenton oxidation, Ozonation etc. are some of the promising, viable and sustainable options for degradation of PhACs. Although energy/chemical or both are essentially required for AOPs, these methods target complete degradation/mineralization of persistent pollutants resulting in no residual toxicity. Considering the high efficiency towards degradation, non-toxic nature, universal viability and acceptability, AOPs have become a promising option for effective treatment of chemicals with persistent nature.
 
Key Words
    pharmaceutical drugs; AOPs; fenton; photocatalysis; ultrasonication
 
Address
Manisha Verma and A. K. Haritash: Department of Environmental Engineering, Delhi Technological University,
Shahbad Daulatpur, Delhi (110042) India
 

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