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Advances in Aircraft and Spacecraft Science
  Volume 5, Number 5, September 2018, pages 581-594
open access

Effects of chemistry in Mars entry and Earth re-entry
Gennaro Zuppardi

    This paper is the follow-on of a previous paper by the author where it was pointed out that the forthcoming, manned exploration missions to Mars, by means of complex geometry spacecraft, involve the study of phenomena like shock wave-boundary layer interaction and shock wave-shock wave interaction also along the entry path in Mars atmosphere. The present paper focuses the chemical effects both in the shock layer and on the surface of a test body along the Mars orbital entry and compares these effects with those along the Earth orbital re-entry. As well known, the Mars atmosphere is almost made up of Carbon dioxide whose dissociation energy is even lower than that of Oxygen. Therefore, although the Mars entry is less energized than the Earth re-entry, one can expect that the effects of chemistry on aerodynamic quantities, both in the shock layer and on a test body surface, are different from those along the Earth re-entry. The study has been carried out computationally by means of a direct simulation Monte Carlo code, simulating the nose of an aero-space-plane and using, as free stream parameters, those along the Mars entry and Earth re-entry trajectories in the altitude interval 60-90 km. At each altitude, three chemical conditions have been considered: 1) gas non reactive and non-catalytic surface, 2) gas reactive and non-catalytic surface, 3) gas reactive and fully-catalytic surface. The results showed that the number of reactions, both in the flow and on the nose surface, is higher for Earth and, correspondingly, also the effects on the aerodynamic quantities.
Key Words
    hypersonic; rarefied aerodynamics; effects of chemical reactions in Mars entry; effects of chemical reactions in Earth re-entry; direct simulation Monte Carlo method
Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Naples

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