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Advances in Aircraft and Spacecraft Science
  Volume 4, Number 6, November 2017 , pages 651-677

Determination of taxiing resistances for transport category airplane tractive propulsion
Nihad E. Daidzic

    For the past ten years\' efforts have been made to introduce environmentally-friendly \"green\" electric-taxi and maneuvering airplane systems. The stated purpose of e-taxi systems is to reduce the taxiing fuel expenses, expedite pushback procedures, reduce gate congestion, reduce ground crew involvement, and reduce noise and air pollution levels at large airports. Airplane-based autonomous traction electric motors receive power from airplane\'s APU(s) possibly supplemented by onboard batteries. Using additional battery energy storages ads significant inert weight. Systems utilizing nose-gear traction alone are often traction-limited posing serious dispatch problems that could disrupt airport operations. Existing APU capacities are insufficient to deliver power for tractive taxiing while also providing for power off-takes. In order to perform comparative and objective analysis of taxi tractive requirements a \"standard\" taxiing cycle has been proposed. An analysis of reasonably expected tractive resistances has to account for steepest taxiway and runway slopes, taxiing into strong headwind, minimum required coasting speeds, and minimum acceptable acceleration requirements due to runway incursions issues. A mathematical model of tractive resistances was developed and was tested using six different production airplanes all at the maximum taxi/ramp weights. The model estimates the tractive force, energy, average and peak power requirements. It has been estimated that required maximum net tractive force should be 10% to 15% of the taxi weight for safe and expeditious airport movements. Hence, airplanes can be dispatched to move independently if the operational tractive taxi coefficient is 0.1 or higher.
Key Words
    airplane taxiing resistances; traction taxiing; electric taxiing; traction force; energy, and power; aerodynamic drag in the ground effect; wind resistance; tire dynamics; airport design
Nihad E. Daidzic:
1) AAR Aerospace Consulting, LLC, P.O. Box 208 Saint Peter, MN 56082-0208, USA
2) Minnesota State University, Mankato, MN 56001, USA

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