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Advances in Aircraft and Spacecraft Science
  Volume 1, Number 3, July 2014, pages 311-330

Optimization of aircraft fuel consumption and reduction of pollutant emissions. Environmental impact assessment

    Environmental impact of aircraft emissions can be addressed in two ways. Air quality impact occurs during landings and takeoffs while in-flight impact during climbs and cruises influences climate change, ozone and UV-radiation. The aim of this paper is to investigate airports related local emissions and fuel consumption (FC). It gives flight path optimization model linked to a dispersion model as well as numerical methods. Operational factors are considered and the cost function integrates objectives taking into account FC and induced pollutant concentrations. We have compared pollutants emitted and their reduction during LTO cycles, optimized flight path and with analysis by Döpelheuer. Pollutants appearing from incomplete and complete combustion processes have been discussed. Because of calculation difficulties, no assessment has been made for the soot, H2O and PM2.5. In addition, because of the low reliability of models quantifying pollutant emissions of the APU, an empirical evaluation has been done. This is based on Benson\'s fuel flow method. A new model, giving FC and predicting the in-flight emissions, has been developed. It fits with the Boeing FC model. We confirm that FC can be reduced by 3% for takeoffs and 27% for landings. This contributes to analyze the intelligent fuel gauge computing the in-flight fuel flow. Further research is needed to define the role of NOx which is emitted during the combustion process derived from the ambient air, not the fuel. Models are needed for analyzing the effects of fleet composition and engine combinations on emission factors and fuel flow assessment.
Key Words
    environmental impact; airports; aircraft; fuel consumption; pollutant emissions
French Institute of Science and Technology for Transport, Development and Networks, AME Department, Transport and Environment Laboratory, 25, avenue Francois Mitterrand 69500 Bron, France.

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