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CONTENTS
Volume 85, Number 1, January10 2023
 


Abstract
The use of functionally graded materials in applications involving severe thermal gradients is quickly gaining acceptance in the composite mechanics community, the aerospace and aircraft industry. In the present study, a refined sandwich plate model is applied to study the free vibration analysis of porous functionally graded material (FGM) sandwich plates with various distribution rate of porosity. Two types of common FG sandwich plates are considered. The first sandwich plate is composed of two FG material (FGM) face sheets and a homogeneous ceramic or metal core. The second one consists of two homogeneous fully metal and ceramic face sheets at the top and bottom, respectively, and a FGM core. The displacement field of the present theory is chosen based on nonlinear variations in the in-plane displacements through the thickness of the sandwich plate. The number of unknowns and equations of motion of the present theory is reduced and hence makes them simple to use. In the analysis, the equation of motion for simply supported sandwich plates is obtained using Hamilton's principle. In order to present the effect of the variation of the porosity distribution on the dynamic behavior of the FGM sandwich plates, new mixtures are proposed which take into account different rate of porosity distribution between the ceramic and the metal. The present method is applicable to study the dynamic behavior of FGM plates and sandwich plates. The frequencies of two kinds of FGM sandwich structures are analyzed and discussed. Several numerical results have been compared with the ones available in the literature.

Key Words
FGP sandwich plate; free vibration analysis; imperfect plates; porosity distribution rate

Address
Aicha Kablia, Rabia Benferhat, Tahar Hassaine Daouadji and Rabahi Abderezak: Civil Engineering Department, University of Tiaret, Algeria; Laboratory of Geomatics and Sustainable Development, University of Tiaret, Algeria

Abstract
Using artificial intelligence and internet of things methods in engineering and industrial problems has become a widespread method in recent years. The low computational costs and high accuracy without the need to engage human resources in comparison to engineering demands are the main advantages of artificial intelligence. In the present paper, a deep neural network (DNN) with a specific method of optimization is utilize to predict fundamental natural frequency of a cylindrical structure. To provide data for training the DNN, a detailed numerical analysis is presented with the aid of functionally modified couple stress theory (FMCS) and first-order shear deformation theory (FSDT). The governing equations obtained using Hamilton's principle, are further solved engaging generalized differential quadrature method. The results of the numerical solution are utilized to train and test the DNN model. The results are validated at the first step and a comprehensive parametric results are presented thereafter. The results show the high accuracy of the DNN results and effects of different geometrical, modeling and material parameters in the natural frequencies of the structure.

Key Words
artificial intelligence; engineering problem; GDQM; internet of things; nanostructure

Address
Xiaofei Liu: School of Computer and Information, Anqing Normal University, Anqing 246133, Anhui, China
Xiaoli Wang: Modern Educational Technology Center, Mudanjiang Medical University, Mudanjiang 157011, Heilongjiang, China

Abstract
High-strength shielding concrete against gamma radiation is a priority for many medical and industrial facilities. This paper aimed to investigate the gamma-ray shielding properties of high-strength hematite concrete mixed with silica fume (SF) with nanoparticles of lead dioxide (PbO2), tungsten oxide (WO3), and bismuth oxide (Bi2O3). The effect of mixing steel fibres with the aforementioned binders was also investigated. The reference mixture was prepared for high-strength concrete (HSCC) containing 100% hematite coarse and fine aggregate. Thirteen mixtures containing 5% SF and nanoparticles of PbO2, WO3, and Bi2O3 (2%, 5%, and 7% of the cement mass, respectively) were prepared. Steel fibres were added at a volume ratio of 0.28% of the volume of concrete with 5% of nanoparticles. The slump test was conducted to workability of fresh concrete Unit weight water permeability, compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, flexural strength, and modulus of elasticity tests were conducted to assess concrete's engineering properties at 28 days. Gamma-ray radiation of 137Cs emits photons with an energy of 662 keV, and that of 60Co emits two photons with energies of 1173 and 1332 keV were applied on concrete specimens to assess radiation shielding properties. Nanoparticles partially replacing cement reduced slump in workability of fresh concrete. The compressive strength of mixtures, including nanoparticles was shown to be greater, achieving 94.5 MPa for the mixture consisting of 7.5 PbO2. In contrast, the mixture (5PbO2-F) containing steel fibres achieved the highest values for splitting tensile, flexural strength, and modulus of elasticity (11.71, 15.97, and 42,840 MPa, respectively). High-strength shielded concrete (7.5PbO2) showed the best radiation protection. It also showed the minimum concrete thickness required to prevent the transmission of radiation.

Key Words
attenuation coefficients; gamma ray; heavyweight concrete; high-strength concrete; mechanical properties; radiation shielding

Address
Mohamed Amin: Civil and Architectural Constructions Department, Faculty of Technology and Education, Suez University, Egypt
Ahmad A. Hakamy: Department of Physics, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah 24382, Saudi Arabia
Abdullah M. Zeyad: Civil Engineering Department, College of Engineering, Jazan University, Jazan, Saudi Arabia
Bassam A. Tayeh: Civil Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Islamic University of Gaza, Palestine
Ibrahim Saad Agwa: Civil and Architectural Constructions Department, Faculty of Technology and Education, Suez University, Egypt

Abstract
Energy-based seismic design and evaluation methods are promising to be involved in the next generation design codes. Accordingly, determining the distribution of earthquake input energy demand among floor levels is quite imperative in order to develop an energy-based seismic design procedure. In this paper, peak floor input energy demands are achieved from relative input energy response histories of several reinforced concrete (RC) frames. A set of 22 horizontal acceleration histories selected from recorded near-fault earthquakes and scaled in time domain to be compatible with the elastic acceleration design spectra of Turkish Seismic Design Code are used in time history analyses. The distribution of the computed input energy per mass values and the arithmetic means through the height of the considered RC frames are presented as a result. It is found that spatial distribution of input energy per mass is highly affected by the number of stories. Very practical yet consistent formulation of distributing the total input energy to story levels is achieved, as a most important contribution of the study.

Key Words
floor input energy; input energy response history; pulse-like ground motions; RC frames

Address
Taner Ucar: Department of Architecture, Dokuz Eylul University, 35390, Buca, Izmir, Turkey

Abstract
To explore the effect of Engineered Cementitious Composite (ECC) on improving the progressive collapse resistance of reinforced concrete frames under a middle column removal scenario, six beam-column substructures were tested by quasistatic vertical loading. Among the six specimens, four were ECC-concrete composite specimens consisting of different depth of ECC at the bottom or top of the beam and concrete in the rest of the beam, while the other two are ordinary reinforced concrete specimens with different concrete strength grades for comparison. The experimental results demonstrated that ECC-concrete composite specimens can improve the bearing capacity of a beam-column substructure at the stages of compressive arch action (CAA) and catenary action in comparison with ordinary concrete specimen. Under the same depth of ECC, the progressive collapse resistance of a specimen with ECC at the beam bottom was superior to that at the beam top. With the increase of the proportion of ECC arranged at the beam bottom, the bearing capacity of a composite substructure was increased, but the increase rate slows down with the proportion. Meanwhile, the nonlinear numerical analysis software MSC Marc was used to simulate the whole loading process of the six specimens. Theoretical formulas to calculate the capacities of ECC-concrete composite specimens at the stages of flexural action, CAA and catenary action are proposed. Based on the research results, this study suggests that ECC should be laid out at the beam bottom and the layout depth should be within 25% of the total beam depth.

Key Words
Compressive Arch Action (CAA); Engineered Cementitious Composite (ECC); progressive collapse resistance; catenary action; bearing capacity

Address
Weihong Qin, Wang Song, Zhuo Xi and Tongqing Zhang: The Key Laboratory of Concrete and Prestressed Concrete Structures of Ministry of Education, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189, China; National Prestress Engineering Research Center, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189, China
Peng Feng: College of Civil Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China

Abstract
This paper begins by analyzing cable vibrations due to external excitations and their effects on the overall dynamic behavior of cable-stayed bridges. It is concluded that if the natural frequency of a cable approaches any natural frequency of the bridge, the cable loses its rigidity and functionality. The results of this analysis explain the phenomenon that occurred on the Dubrovnik Bridge in Croatia during a storm and measures for its retrofit. A field test was conducted before the bridge was opened to traffic. It was concluded: "The Bridge excited unpleasant transverse superstructure vibration with the frequency of approximately 0.470 Hz. Hence, it seems possible that a pair of stays vibrating in phase may excite deck vibrations". Soon after this Bridge opened, a storm dumped heavy damp snow in the area, causing the six longest cable stay pairs of the main span to undergo large-amplitude vibrations, and the superstructure underwent considerable displacements in combined torsion-sway and bending modes. This necessitated rehabilitation measures for the Bridge including devices to suppress the large-amplitude vibrations of cables. The rehabilitation and monitoring of the Bridge are also presented here.

Key Words
adaptive cable damper (ACD); aerodynamics; cable-stayed bridge; monitoring; rehabilitation; vibrations

Address
Mladen Bulić and Mehmed Čaušević: Faculty of Civil Engineering, University of Rijeka, R. Matejčić 3, HR-51000 Rijeka, Croatia

Abstract
This work presents a proposal for employing reduced numerical integration in the formulation of the 4-node quadrilateral solid finite element. The use of these low-order integration rules leads to numerical instabilities such as those producing the hourglass effect. The proposed procedure allows evaluating a given constitutive model only in one integration point, achieving an attractive computational cost reduction and, also, successfully controls the hourglass effect. A validation of the proposal is included and discussed throughout the paper. To show the efficiency of the proposal, several application examples of masonry structures are studied and discussed. To represent the non-linear mechanical behaviour of masonry a plastic-damage model is implemented within the application of this sub-integration scheme. Also, in order to have a full and computationally efficient strategy to determine the behaviour of masonry structures, involving its evolution to collapse, a homogenization technique with a macro-modeling approach is used. The methodology discussed throughout this paper demonstrates a substantial computational cost reduction and an improved approximation of the non-linear problem evidenced by a reduction of up to 85% of the computational time for some cases.

Key Words
computational cost; non-linear analysis; reduced numerical integration

Address
Héctor R. Amezcua and Amado G. Ayala: Institute of Engineering, National Autonomous University of Mexico, UNAM, Mexico City 04510, Mexico

Abstract
The present work is an attempt to develop a simple and accurate finite element formulation for the assessment of thermal shock/thermally induced vibrations in pretwisted and tapered functionally graded material thin (FGM) blades obtained from Voigt and local representative volume elements (LRVE) homogenization models, based on neutral surface approach. The neutral surface of the FGM blade does not coincide with its mid-surface. A finite element model (FEM) is developed using firstorder shear deformation theory (FSDT) and the FGM turbine blade is modelled according to the shallow shell theory. The top and the bottom layers of the FGM blade are made of pure ceramic and pure metal, respectively and temperature-dependent material properties are functionally graded in the thickness direction, the position of the neutral surface also depends on the temperature. The material properties are estimated according to two different homogenization models viz., Voigt or LRVE. The top layer of the FGM blade is subjected to high temperature and the bottom surface is either thermally insulated or kept at room temperature. The solution of the nonlinear profile of the temperature in the thickness direction is obtained from the Fourier law of heat conduction in the unsteady state. The results obtained from the present FEM are compared with the benchmark examples. Next, the effect of angle of twist, intensity of thermal shock, variable chord and span and volume fraction index on the transient response due to thermal shock obtained from the two homogenization models viz., Voigt and LRVE scheme is investigated. It is shown that there can be a significant difference in the transient response calculated by the two homogenization models for a particular set of material and geometric parameters.

Key Words
FEM; neutral surface; tapered pretwisted thin FGM blade; thermally induced vibrations; Voigt and LRVE homogenization models

Address
Ankit Kumar and Shashank Pandey: Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Institute of Technology Jamshedpur, Jamshedpur 831014, India

Abstract
Impact event is the key factor influencing the operational state of the mechanical equipment. Additionally, nonlinear factors existing in the complex mechanical equipment which are currently attracting more and more attention. Therefore, this paper proposes a novel hybrid-separate identification strategy to solve the force identification problem of the nonlinear structure under impact excitation. The 'hybrid' means that the identification strategy contains both l1-norm (sparse) and l2-norm regularization methods. The 'separate' means that the nonlinear response part only generated by nonlinear force needs to be separated from measured response. First, the state-of-the-art two-step iterative shrinkage/thresholding (TwIST) algorithm and sparse representation with the cubic B-spline function are developed to solve established normalized sparse regularization model to identify the accurate impact force and accurate peak value of the nonlinear force. Then, the identified impact force is substituted into the nonlinear response separation equation to obtain the nonlinear response part. Finally, a reduced transfer equation is established and solved by the classical Tikhonove regularization method to obtain the wave profile (variation trend) of the nonlinear force. Numerical and experimental identification results demonstrate that the novel hybrid-separate strategy can accurately and efficiently obtain the nonlinear force and impact force for the nonlinear structure.

Key Words
ill-posed inverse problem; impact force; nonlinear separation; nonlinear structure; sparse regularization

Address
Jinsong Yang: School of Traffic and Transportation Engineering, Central South University, 410075, Changsha, P.R. China
Jie Liu: School of Printing Packaging and Digital Media, Xi

Abstract
This study presents the free vibrational responses of bi-directional axially graded cylindrical shell panels using 3D graded finite element approximation under a temperature field. The cylindrical shell panel is graded in two directions and made of metal-ceramic materials. To extract material properties, the Voigt model is combined with a Power-law material distribution. Convergence and validation studies are performed on the developed computational model to ensure its accuracy and effectiveness. Furthermore, a parametric study is performed to evaluate the developed model, which demonstrates that geometrical parameters, imperfect materials (porosity), support conditions, and surface temperature all have a significant impact on the free vibration responses of a bi-directional axially graded cylindrical shell panel in a thermal environment.

Key Words
3D elasticity theory; FEM; free vibration; functionally graded materials; porosity

Address
Pankaj S. Ghatage: School of Mechanical Engineering, Vellore Institute of Technology, Vellore, 632014, Tamilnadu, India; Department of Automobile Engineering, Rajarambapu Institute of Technology, Rajaramnagar, Affiliated to Shivaji University, Kolhapur, Islampur, 415414, Maharashtra, India
P. Edwin Sudhagar: School of Mechanical Engineering, Vellore Institute of Technology, Vellore, 632014, Tamilnadu, India


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