Techno Press
Tp_Editing System.E (TES.E)
Login Search
You logged in as

sem
 
CONTENTS
Volume 82, Number 1, April10 2022
 


Abstract
This work elaborately investigates the influences of the guideway geometry parameters and track irregularity on the dynamic performances of the suspended monorail vehicle-guideway system (SMVGS). Firstly, a spatial dynamic analysis model of the SMVGS is established by adopting ANSYS parameter design language. Then, the dynamic interaction between a vehicle with maximum design load and guideway is investigated by numerical simulation and field tests, revealing the vehicle-guideway dynamic features. Subsequently, the influences of the guideway geometry parameters and track irregularity on the dynamic performances of the SMVGS are analyzed and discussed in detail, and the reasonable ranges of several key geometry parameters of the guideway are also obtained. Results show that the vehicle-guideway dynamic responses change nonlinearly with an increase of the guideway span, and especially the guideway dynamic performances can be effectively improved by reducing the guideway span; based on a comprehensive consideration of all performance indices of the SMVGS, the deflectionspan ratio of the suspended monorail guideway is finally recommended to be 1/1054~1/868. The train load could cause a large bending deformation of the pier, which would intensify the car-body lateral displacement and decrease the vehicle riding comfort; to well limit the bending deformation of the pier, its cross-section dimension is suggested to be more than 0.8 mx0.8 m. The addition of the track irregularity amplitude has small influences on the displacements and stress of the guideway; however, it would significantly increase the vehicle-guideway vibrations and rate of load reduction of the driving tyre.

Key Words
dynamic performance; field test; geometry parameters; suspended monorail system; train-guideway interaction

Address
Qinglie He, Yun Yang, Chengbiao Cai and Shengyang Zhu: State Key Laboratory of Traction Power, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031, China

Abstract
The use of composite patches for the reduction of stresses at the level of the damaged zone in aeronautical structures has experienced rapid expansion given its advantages over conventional mechanical processes (riveting, bolting, etc.). Initially, The research axes in this field were aimed at choosing suitable mechanical properties for the composite and the adhesive, then to optimize the shape of the composite patch in order to ensure good load transfer and avoid having a debonding at the level of the edges essentially for the case of a repair by single side where the bending moment is present due to the non-symmetry of the structure. Our work falls within this context; the objective is to analyze by the finite element method the fracture behavior of a damaged plate repaired by composite patch. Stress reduction at the edge is accomplished by creating a variable angle chamfer on the composite patch. The effects of the crack length, the laminate sequence and the nature of the patch as well as the use of a hybrid patch were investigated. The results show clearly that a beveled patch reduces the stress concentrations in the damaged area and even at its edges. The hybrid patch also ensures good durability of the repair by optimizing its stacking sequence and the location of the different layers according to the fibers orientations.

Key Words
composite patch; hybrid patch; J-Integral; patch beveling; stresses

Address
A. Belhoucine and K. Madani: Department of Mechanical Engineering, LMPM, University of Sidi Bel Abbes, BP 89 Cité Ben M'hidi 22000, Sidi Bel Abbes, Algeria

Abstract
In structural engineering, the material properties of the structures such as elastic modulus, shear modulus, density, and size may not be deterministic and may vary at different locations. The dynamic response analysis of such structures may need to consider these properties as stochastic. This paper introduces a stochastic finite element method (SFEM) approach to analyze moving loads problems. Firstly, Karhunen-Loéve expansion (KLE) is applied for expressing the stochastic field of material properties. Then the mathematical expression of the random field is substituted into the finite element model to formulate the corresponding random matrix. Finally, the statistical moment of the dynamic response is calculated by the point estimation method (PEM). The accuracy and efficiency of the dynamic response obtained from the KLE-PEM are demonstrated by the example of a moving load passing through a simply supported Euler-Bernoulli beam, in which the material properties (including elastic modulus and density) are considered as random fields. The results from the KLE-PEM are compared with those from the Monte Carlo simulation. The results demonstrate that the proposed method of KLE-PEM has high accuracy and efficiency. By using the proposed SFEM, the random vertical deflection of a high-speed railway (HSR) bridge is analyzed by considering the random fields of material properties under the moving load of a train.

Key Words
finite element method; point estimate method; railway bridge; random dynamics; stochastic field

Address
Xiang Liu: School of Civil Engineering, Fujian University of Technology, Fuzhou 350118, China
Lizhong Jiang: School of Civil Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410075, China; National Engineering Research Center of High-speed Railway Construction Technology, Changsha 410075, China
Ping Xiang: School of Civil Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410075, China; Engineering Research Center for Seismic Disaster Prevention and Engineering, Geological Disaster Detection of Jiangxi Province, East China University of Technology, China
Zhipeng Lai: School of Civil Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410075, China; National Engineering Research Center of High-speed Railway Construction Technology, Changsha 410075, China
Yuntai Zhang: School of Civil Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410075, China
Lili Liu: School of Civil Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410075, China

Abstract
We developed an accurate and simple vibration model to calculate the natural frequencies and their corresponding vibration modes for multi-span beam bridges with non-uniform cross-sections. A closed set of characteristic functions of a single-span beam was used to construct the vibration modes of the multi-span bridges, which were considered single-span beams with multiple constraints. To simplify the boundary conditions, the restraints were converted into spring constraints. Then the functional of the total energy has the same form as the penalty method. Compared to the conventional penalty method, the penalty coefficients in the proposed approach can be calculated directly, which can avoid the iteration process and convergence problem. The natural frequencies and corresponding vibration modes were obtained via the minimum total potential energy principle. By using the symmetry of the eigenfunctions or structure, the matrix size can be further reduced, which increases the computational efficiency of the proposed model. The accuracy and efficiency of the proposed approach were validated by the finite element method.

Key Words
beam bridge; bridge vibration; multiple constraints; natural frequency; vibration mode

Address
Shiping Huang: School of Civil Engineering and Transportation, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640, P.R. China; China-Singapore International Joint Research Institute, Guangzhou 510700, P.R. China; Chair of Computational Mathematics, Fundación Deusto, Avda. de las Universidades 24, 48007 Bilbao, Basque Country, Spain
Huijian Zhang: School of Civil Engineering and Transportation, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640, P.R. China
Piaohua Chen: School of Civil Engineering and Transportation, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640, P.R. China
Yazhi Zhu: Department of Structural Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, P.R. China
Enrique Zuazua: Chair in Dynamics, Control and Numerics, Alexander von Humboldt-Professorship, Department of Data Science, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, 91058 Erlangen, Germany; Chair of Computational Mathematics, Fundación Deusto, Avda. de las Universidades 24, 48007 Bilbao, Basque Country, Spain; Departamento de Matematicas, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid, Spain

Abstract
The precast reinforced concrete frame system is a method for industrialization of construction. However, the seismic performance factor of this structural system is not explicitly clarified in some existing building codes. In this paper, the seismic performance factor for the existing precast concrete building frame systems with cast-in-situ reinforced shear walls were evaluated. Nonlinear behavior of the precast beam-column joints and cast-in-situ reinforced shear walls were considered in the modeling of the structures. The ATC-19's coefficient method was used for calculating the seismic performance factor and the FEMA P-695's approach was adopted for evaluating the accuracy of the computed seismic performance factor. The results showed that the over-strength factor varies from 2 to 2.63 and the seismic performance factor (R factor) varies from 5.1 to 8.95 concerning the height of the structure. Also, it was proved that all of the examined buildings have adequate safety against the collapse at the MCE level of earthquake, so the validity of R factors was confirmed. The obtained incremental dynamic analysis (IDA) results indicated that the minimum adjusted collapse margin ratio (ACMR) of the precast buildings representing the seismic vulnerability of the structures approximately equaled to 2.7, and pass the requirements of FEMA P-695.

Key Words
beam-column joint; collapse capacity; nonlinear dynamic analysis; precast concrete building; seismic performance factors

Address
Mahdi Adibi and Roozbeh Talebkhah: School of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Bojnord, Iran

Abstract
This paper discusses the field testing of two single-span double-tee girder (DTG) bridges in South Dakota to determine live load distribution factors (LLDFs) and the dynamic load allowance (IM). One bridge had seven girders and another had eight girders. The longitudinal girder-to-girder joints of both bridges were deteriorated in a way that water could penetrate and the joint steel members were corroded. A truck traveled across each of the two bridges at five transverse paths. The paths were tested twice with a crawl speed load test and twice with a dynamic load. The LLDFs and IM were determined using strain data measured during the field tests. These results were compared with those determined according to the AASHTO Standard and the AASHTO LRFD specifications. Nearly all the measured LLDFs were below the AASHTO LRFD design LLDFs, with the exception of two instances: 1) An exterior DTG on the seven-girder bridge and 2) An interior DTG on the eight-girder bridge. The LLDFs specified in the AASHTO Standard were conservative compared with the measured LLDFs. It was also found that both AASHTO LRFD and AASHTO Standard specifications were conservative when estimating IM, compared to the field test results for both bridges.

Key Words
double-tee girder bridges; dynamic load allowance; field testing; live load distribution factor; longitudinal joint damage

Address
Brian Kidd, Sandip Rimal, Junwon Seo, Mostafa Tazarv and Nadim Wehbe: Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007, USA

Abstract
Ultra-high performance fiber reinforced concrete (UHPFRC) is a composite building material with high ductility, fatigue resistance, fracture toughness, durability, and energy absorption capacity. The aim of this study is to develop a nonlinear finite element model that can simulate the response of the UHPFRC beam exposed to impact loads. A nonlinear finite element model was developed in ABAQUS to simulate the real response of UHPFRC beams. The numerical results showed that the model was highly successful to capture the experimental results of selected beams from the literature. A parametric study was carried out to investigate the effects of reinforcement ratio and impact velocity on the response of the UHPFRC beam in terms of midpoint displacement, impact load value, and residual load-carrying capacity. In the parametric study, the nonlinear analysis was performed in two steps for 12 different finite element models. In the first step, dynamic analysis was performed to monitor the response of the UHPFRC beam under impact loads. In the second step, static analysis was conducted to determine the residual load-carrying capacity of the beams. The parametric study has shown that the reinforcement ratio and the impact velocity affect maximum and residual displacement value substantially.

Key Words
finite element modeling; impact load; reinforced concrete beam; residual load-carrying capacity; ultra-high performance fiber reinforced concrete

Address
Gamze Demirtas, Naci Caglar: Department of Civil Engineering, Engineering Faculty, Sakarya University, 54050 Sakarya, Turkey
Yusuf Sumer: Department of Civil Engineering, Technology Faculty, Sakarya University of Applied Sciences, 54050 Sakarya, Turkey

Abstract
The brittleness of concrete can be overcome by fiber reinforcement that controls the crack mechanisms of concrete. Corrosion-related durability issues can be prevented by synthetic fibers (SFs), while macro synthetic fibers have proven to be particularly effective to provide ductility and toughness after cracks. This experimental study has been performed to investigate the comparative flexural and mechanical behavior of four different macro-synthetic fiber-reinforced concretes (SFRCs). Two polyamide fibers (SF1 and SF2) with different aspect ratios and two different polypropylene fiber types (SF3 and SF4) were used in production of SFRCs. Four different SFRCs and reference concrete were compared for their influences on the toughness, compressive strength, elastic modulus, flexural strength, residual strength and splitting tensile strength. The outcomes of the study reveal that the flowability of reference mixture decreases after addition of SFs and the air voids of all SFRC mixtures increased with the addition of macro-synthetic fibers except SFRC2 mixture whose air content is the same as the reference mixture. The results also revealed that with the inclusion of SFs, 11.34% reduction in the cube compressive strength was noted for SFRC4 based on that of reference specimens and both reference concrete and SFRC exhibited nearly similar cylindrical compressive strength. Results illustrated that SFRC1 and SFRC4 mixtures consistently provide the highest and lowest flexural toughness values of 36.4 joule and 27.7 joule respectively. The toughness values of SFRC3 and SFRC4 are very near to each other.

Key Words
compressive strength; fiber-reinforced concretes; flexural performance; fresh properties; Macro-synthetic fibers; mechanical behavior

Address
Fuat Koksal, Cem Bacanli: Department of Civil Engineering, Yozgat Bozok University, 66900, Yozgat, Turkey
Ahmet Benli: Department of Civil Engineering, Bingol University, 12000, Bingol, Turkey
Osman Gencel: Department of Civil Engineering, Bartin University, 74000, Bartin, Turkey

Abstract
The bracing members capable of active control against seismic loads to reduce earthquake damage have been widely utilized in construction projects. Effectively reducing the structural damage caused by earthquake events, bracing systems equipped with retrofitting damper devices, which take advantage of the energy dissipation and impact absorption, have been widely used in practical construction sites. Shape Memory Alloys (SMAs) are a new generation of smart materials with the capability of recovering their predefined shape after experiencing a large strain. This is mainly due to the shape memory effects and the superelasticity of SMA. These properties make SMA an excellent alternative to be used in passive, semi-active, and active control systems in civil engineering applications. In this research, a new system in diagonal braces with slit damper combined with SMA is investigated. The diagonal element under the effect of tensile and compressive force turns to shear force in the slit damper and creates tension in the SMA. Therefore, by creating shear forces in the damper, it leads to yield and increases the energy absorption capacity of the system. The purpose of using SMA, in addition to increasing the stiffness and strength of the system, is to create reversibility for the system. According to the results, the highest capacity is related to the case where the ratio of the width of the middle section to the width of the end section (b1/b) is 1.0 and the ratio of the height of the middle part to the total height of the damper (h1/h) is 0.1. This is mainly because in this case, the damper section has the highest cross-section. In contrast, the lowest capacity is related to the case where b1/b=0.1 and the ratio h1/h=0.8.

Key Words
energy absorption; reversibility; shape memory alloys; slit damper

Address
Farzad Vafadar: Department of Civil Engineering, Zanjan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Zanjan, Iran
Vahid Broujerdian: School of Civil Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran
Ali Ghamari: Department of Civil Engineering, Darreh Shahr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Darreh Shahr, Iran

Abstract
The main goal of this study is to prepare a program for analyzing High Strength Steel Fibrous Reinforced Concrete (HSSFRC) slabs and predict the response and strength of the slab instead of preparing a prototype and testing it in the laboratory. For this purpose, new equations are proposed to represent the material properties of High Strength Steel Fibrous Reinforced Concrete. The proposed equations obtained from performing regression analysis on many experimental results using statistical programs. The finite element method is adopted for non-linear analysis of the slabs. The eight-node "Serendipity element" (3 DoF) is chosen to represent the concrete. The layered approach is adopted for concrete elements and the steel reinforcement is represented by a smeared layer. The compression properties of the concrete are modeled by a work hardening plasticity approach and the yield condition is determined depending on the first two stress invariants. A tensile strength criterion is adopted in order to estimate the cracks propagation. many experimental results for testing slabs are compared with the numerical results of the present study and a good agreement is achieved regarding load-deflection curves and crack pattern. The response of the load deflection curve is slightly stiff at the beginning because the creep effect is not considered in this study and for assuming perfect bond between the steel reinforcement and the concrete, however, a great agreement is achieved between the ultimate load from the present study and experimental results. For the models of the tension stiffening and cracked shear modulus, the value of Bg and Bt (Where Bg and Bt are the curvature factor for the cracked shear modulus and tension stiffening models respectively) equal to 0.005 give good results compared with experimental result.

Key Words
finite element method; high strength; new constitutive models; reinforced concrete slabs; steel fiber

Address
Ahmed Asaad Yaseen and Ayad A. Abdul-Razzak: Civil Engineering Department, University of Mosul, Mosul, Iraq


Techno-Press: Publishers of international journals and conference proceedings.       Copyright © 2022 Techno-Press
P.O. Box 33, Yuseong, Daejeon 34186 Korea, Tel: +82-2-736-6800 (SCS, EAS, WAS, ANR) +82-42-828-7995 (GAE, SEM, SSS, CAC) Fax : +82-2-736-6801, Email: info@techno-press.com