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CONTENTS
Volume 77, Number 3, February10 2021
 

Abstract
In order to reduce enormous cost of real-scale underwater explosion experiments on ships, the mechanical response of the ships have been analyzed by combining scaled-down experiments and Hopkinson's scaling law. However, the Hopkinson's scaling law is applicable only if all variables vary in an identical ratio; for example, thickness of ship, size of explosive, and distance between the explosive and the ship should vary with same ratio. Unfortunately, it is infeasible to meet such uniform scaling requirement because of environmental conditions and limitations in manufacturing scaled model systems. For the facile application of the scaling analysis, we propose a generalized scaling law that is applicable for non-uniform scaling cases in which different parts of the experiments are scaled in different ratios compared to the real-scale experiments. In order to establish such a generalized scaling law, we conducted a parametric study based on numerical simulations, and validated it with experiments and simulations. This study confirms that the initial peak value of response variables in a real-scale experiment can be predicted even when we perform a scaled experiment composed of different scaling ratios for each experimental variable.

Key Words
fluid-structure interactions; shock wave; underwater explosion; scaling law; finite element analysis

Address
Yongtae Kim: Department of Mechanical Engineering and KI for the NanoCentury, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34141, Republic of Korea
Seunggyu Lee: Department of Mechanical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34141, Republic of Korea
Jongchul Kim: Maritime Technology Research Institute, Agency for Defense Development, Jinhae-gu, Changwon,
Gyeongsangnam 51678, Republic of Korea
Seunghwa Ryu: Department of Mechanical Engineering and KI for the NanoCentury, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34141, Republic of Korea

Abstract
Here, in this research we have studied a two dimensional problem in a homogeneous orthotropic magnetothermoelastic medium with higher order dual-phase-lag heat transfer with combined effects of rotation and hall current in generalized thermoelasticity due to time harmonic sources. As an application the bounding surface is subjected to uniformly distributed and concentrated loads (mechanical and thermal source). Fourier transform technique is used to solve the problem. The expressions for displacement components, stress components and temperature change are derived in frequency domain. Numerical inversion technique has been used to obtain the results in physical domain. The effect of frequency has been depicted with the help of graphs.

Key Words
orthotropic; frequency domain; higher-order-dual-phase-lags; Fourier transform; concentrated and uniformly distributed loads

Address
Parveen Lata and Himanshi: Department of Basic and Applied Sciences, Punjabi University Patiala, Punjab, India

Abstract
In this paper, the effect of different steel bar configurations on the quasi-static punching and impact response of concrete slabs was studied. A total of forty RC square slab specimens were cast in two groups of concrete strengths of 40 and 63 MPa. In each group of twenty specimens, ten specimens were reinforced at the back face (singly reinforced), and the remaining specimens were reinforced on both faces of the slab (doubly reinforced). Two rebar spacing of 25 and 100 mm, with constant reinforcement ratio and effective depth, were used in both singly and doubly reinforced slab specimens. The specimens were tested against the normal impact of cylindrical projectiles of hemispherical nose shape. Slabs were also quasi-statically tested in punching using the same projectile, which was employed for the impact testing. The experimental response illustrates that 25 mm spaced rebars are effective in (I) decreasing the local damage and overall penetration depth, (II) increasing the absorption of impact energy, and (III) enhancing the ballistic limit of RC slabs. The ballistic limit was predicted using the quasi-static punching test results of slab specimens showing a strong correlation between the dynamic perforation energy and the energy required for quasi-static perforation of slabs.

Key Words
RC slabs; impact; rebar spacing; quasi-static; ballistic limit; projectile

Address
Husain Abbas, Nadeem A. Siddiqui, Tarek H. Almusallam, Aref A. Abadel, Hussein Elsanadedy and Yousef A. Al-Salloum: Chair of Research and Studies in Strengthening and Rehabilitation of Structures, Department of Civil Engineering, King Saud University, Riyadh 11421, Saudi Arabia

Abstract
The frequencies formulas of the bridge are of great importance in the design process since these formulas provide insight dynamic characteristics of the structure, which guides the designers to parametric analyses and the layout of the bridge in conceptual or preliminary design. Continuous rigid frame bridge is popular in the mountainous area. Mostly, this type of bridge was simplified either as a girder or cantilever when calculating the frequency, however, studies showed that the different configuration of the bridge made the problem more complex, and there is no unified fundamental calculation pattern for this kind of bridge. In this study, an empirical frequency equation is proposed as a function of pier's height, stiffness of pier and the weight of the structure. A unified fundamental frequency formula is presented based on the energy principle, then the typical continuous rigid frame bridge is investigated by finite element method (FEM) to study the dynamic characteristics of the structure, and then several key parameters are investigated on the effect of structural frequency. These parameters include the number, position and stiffness of the tie beam. Nonlinear regression analyses are conducted with a comprehensive statistical study from plenty of engineering structures. Finally, the proposed frequency equation is validated by field test results. The results show that the fundamental frequency of the continuous rigid frame bridge increases more than 15% when the tie beams are set, and it increases with the stiffness ratio of tie beam to pier. The results also show that the presented unified fundamental frequency has an error of 4.6% compared with the measured results. The investigation can predicate the approximate longitudinal fundamental frequency of continuous ridged frame bridge, which can provide reference for the seismic response and dynamic impact factor design of the pier.

Key Words
continuous rigid frame bridge; unified calculation model; fundamental frequency; energy method

Address
Yongjun Zhou, Yu Zhao, Jiang Liu and Yuan Jing: School of Highway, Chang'an University, Middle Section of Nan Erhuan Road, Xi'an 710064, PR China

Abstract
The time-varying mean (TVM) component of non-stationary wind speeds is commonly extracted utilizing empirical mode decomposition (EMD) in practice, whereas the accuracy of the extracted TVM is difficult to be quantified. To deal with this problem, this paper proposes an approach to identify and extract the optimal TVM from several TVM results obtained by the EMD. It is suggested that the optimal TVM of a 10-min time history of wind speeds should meet both the following conditions: (1) the probability density function (PDF) of fluctuating wind component agrees well with the modified Gaussian function (MGF). At this stage, a coefficient p is newly defined as an evaluation index to quantify the correlation between PDF and MGF. The smaller the p is, the better the derived TVM is; (2) the number of local maxima of obtained optimal TVM within a 10-min time interval is less than 6. The proposed approach is validated by a numerical example, and it is also adopted to extract the optimal TVM from the field measurement records of wind speeds collected during a sandstorm event.

Key Words
Gaussian function; non-stationary wind speed model; empirical mode decomposition; probability density function; optimal time-varying mean

Address
Kang Cai: School of Civil and Hydraulic Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei, Anhui 230009, China;
Architecture and Civil Engineering Research Center, City University of Hong Kong Shenzhen Research Institute, Shenzhen, China
Xiao Li: Architecture and Civil Engineering Research Center, City University of Hong Kong Shenzhen Research Institute, Shenzhen, China; Department of Architecture and Civil Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong
Lun-hai Zhi: School of Civil and Hydraulic Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei, Anhui 230009, China
Xu-liang Han: Architecture and Civil Engineering Research Center, City University of Hong Kong Shenzhen Research Institute, Shenzhen, China; Department of Architecture and Civil Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong

Abstract
The seismic responses of elevated tanks considering liquid-structure interaction are presented under horizontal earthquake. The scaled model tank is fabricated to study the dynamic responses of anchored tank and newly designed uplift tank with replaced dampers. The natural frequencies for structural mode are obtained by modal analysis. The dynamic responses of tanks are completed by finite element method, which are compared with the results from experiment. The displacement parallel and perpendicular to the excitation direction are both gained as well as structural acceleration. The strain of tank walls and the axial strain of columns are also obtained afterwards. The seismic responses of liquid storage tank can be calculated by the finite element model effectively and the results match well with the one measured by experiment. The aim is to provide a new type of tank system with vertical constraint relaxed which leads to lower stress level. With the liquid volume increasing, the structural fundamental frequency has a great reduction and the one of uplift tank are even smaller. Compared with anchored tank, the displacement of uplift tank is magnified, the strain for tank walls and columns parallel to excitation direction reduces obviously, while the one perpendicular to earthquake direction increases a lot, but the values are still small. The stress level of new tank seems to be more even due to uplift effect. The new type of tank can realize recoverable function by replacing dampers after earthquake.

Key Words
liquid storage tank; seismic response; liquid-structure interaction; uplift effect; shaking table test; finite element analysis

Address
Junwen Zhou: School of Civil Engineering, Chongqing University, No.83, Shabei Street, Shapingba District, Chongqing, China; Department of Civil Engineering, Tongji University, No.1239, Siping Road, Yangpu District, Shanghai, China
Ming Zhao: Department of Civil Engineering, Tongji University, No.1239, Siping Road, Yangpu District, Shanghai, China

Abstract
Column foot in traditional Chinese timber structures may be subjected to be uplifted due to the lateral load and subsequently reset under the vertical loads. The residual moment of the rocking column foot is the most important parameter representing the mechanical behaviors of column foot, and the simplification of joints is the basis of structural analysis of whole structure. The complicated mechanical behaviors of joint and the modeling of the column foot joint has been undertaken historically based on the experiments and numerical simulation. On the condition of limited application range of those models, a lack of simplified model to represent the mechanical behaviors of joint deserves attentions. There is a great need to undertake theoretical studies to derive the residual moment and make better simplified model of the joint. This paper proposes the residual moment and equivalent simplified model of the rotational stiffness for column foot joint. And, the timber frame is established based on the simplified model, which is verified by solid finite element model. Results show that a mutual agreement on the mechanical behaviors of the timber frame is obtained between the simplified model and the solid finite element model. This study can serve as the references of the structural analysis for the traditional timber structures.

Key Words
traditional timber structure; timber frame; simplified model; column foot; mechanical behaviors; finite element model

Address
Qing-shan Yang: School of Civil Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044, China; Beijing's Key Laboratory of Structural Wind Engineering and Urban Wind Environment, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044, China
Jun-xiao He: Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Future Urban Design, Beijing University of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Beijing 100044, China
Juan Wang: School of Civil Engineering, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044, China; Beijing's Key Laboratory of Structural Wind Engineering and Urban Wind Environment, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044, China

Abstract
Near-field underwater explosion (UNDEX) phenomena were investigated by experiments and numerical simulations. The UNDEX experiments were performed in a water tank using a ship-like model. One kilogram of TNT, one of the most widely used military high explosives, was used for the experiments. Numerical simulations were performed under the same conditions as in the experiments using the commercial software LS-DYNA. Underwater pressures, accelerations, velocities, and strains by shock waves were measured at multiple locations. Further, the bubble pulsation period and the whipping deformations of the ship-like model were explored. The experimental results are presented and examined through comparison with the results obtained from widely used empirical equations and numerical simulations.

Key Words
underwater explosion (UNDEX); near-field explosion; UNDEX experiment; UNDEX simulation

Address
Seunggyu Lee, Junghee Cho, Chaemin Lee: Department of Mechanical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34141, Republic of Korea
Seongpil Cho: Department of Mechanical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34141, Republic of Korea; Alternative Fuels and Power System Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Ships and Ocean Engineering, Daejeon 34103, Republic of Korea

Abstract
Seismic isolation is one of the best-advanced methods for controlling seismic vibrations in buildings, bridges and nuclear facilities. A new Friction Multi-Layer Elastomeric Seismic Isolator (FMESI) has been modeled, analyzed and investigated by ABAQUS finite element analysis software and then, compared to real models. A number of friction cores have been used instead of the lead core therefore, some of the previous isolator problems have been almost resolved. Moreover, Studies show that the proposed isolator provides suitable initial stiffness and acceptable hysteresis behavior under different vertical and horizontal loading conditions and also internal stresses in different layers are acceptable. Also, as a result, the initial stiffness and overall area of the curves increase, as friction coefficients of the cores increase, although the frictional coefficients must be within a certain range.

Key Words
seismic isolator; multilayer elastomeric isolator; friction isolators; friction cores

Address
Gholamali Mirali-Katouli and Gholamreza Abdollahzadeh: Faculty of Civil Engineering, Babol Noshirvani University of Technology, Iran

Abstract
The geometric nonlinearity has been successfully integrated with the design of steel structural system. Thus, the tubular lattice girder, one application of steel structural systems have already been optimized to obtain an economic design following the completion of computationally expensive design procedure. In order to decrease its computing cost, this study proposes to employ five multi-objective metaheuristics for the design optimization of geometrically nonlinear tubular lattice girder. Then, the employed multi-objective optimization algorithms (MOAs), NSGAII, PESAII, SPEAII, AbYSS and MoCell are evaluated considering their computing performances. For an unbiased evaluation of their computing performance, a tubular lattice girder with varying size-shape-topology and a benchmark truss design with 17 members are not only optimized considering the geometrically nonlinear behavior, but three benchmark mathematical functions along with the four benchmark linear design problems are also included for the comparison purpose. The proposed experimental study is carried out by use of an intelligent optimization tool named JMetal v5.10. According to the quantitative results of employed quality indicators with respect to a statistical analysis test, MoCell is resulted with an achievement of showing better computing performance compared to other four MOAs. Consequently, MoCell is suggested as an optimization tool for the design of geometrically nonlinear tubular lattice girder than the other employed MOAs.

Key Words
multi-objective optimization; evolutionary metaheuristics; geometric nonlinearity; tubular lattice girder

Address
Tugrul Talaslioglu: Department of Civil Engineering, Osmaniye Korkut Ata University, 80000, Osmaniye, Turkey


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