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Volume 75, Number 4, August25 2020
 

Abstract
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Key Words


Address


Abstract
Recently, many structural damage detection (SDD) methods have been proposed to monitor the safety of structures. As an important modal parameter, mode shape has been widely used in SDD, and the difference of vectors was adopted based on sensitivity analysis and mode shapes in the existing studies. However, amplitudes of mode shapes in different measured points are relative values. Therefore, the difference of mode shapes will be influenced by their amplitudes, and the SDD results may be inaccurate. Focus on this deficiency, a multi-strategy SDD method is proposed based on the included angle of vectors and sparse regularization in this study. Firstly, inspired by modal assurance criterion (MAC), a relationship between mode shapes and changes in damage coefficients is established based on the included angle of vectors. Then, frequencies are introduced for multi-strategy SDD by a weighted coefficient. Meanwhile, sparse regularization is applied to improve the ill-posedness of the SDD problem. As a result, a novel convex optimization problem is proposed for effective SDD. To evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed method, numerical simulations in a planar truss and experimental studies in a six-story aluminum alloy frame in laboratory are conducted. The identified results indicate that the proposed method can effectively reduce the influence of noises, and it has good ability in locating structural damages and quantifying damage degrees.

Key Words
structural damage detection (SDD); multi-strategy method; sparse regularization; included angle of vectors

Address
MOE Key Laboratory of Disaster Forecast and Control in Engineering,
School of Mechanics and Construction Engineering, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632, China

Abstract
Practical non-synoptic fluctuating wind often exhibits nonstationary features and should be modeled as nonstationary random processes. Generally, the coherence function of the fluctuating wind field has time-varying characteristics. Some studies have shown that there is a big difference between the fluctuating wind field of the coherent function model with and without time variability. Therefore, it is of significance to simulate nonstationary fluctuating wind field with time-varying coherent function. However, current studies on the numerical simulation of nonstationary fluctuating wind field with time-varying coherence are very limited, and the proposed approaches are usually based on the traditional spectral representation method with low simulation efficiency. Especially, for the simulation of multi-variable wind field of large span structures such as transmission tower-line, not only the simulation is inefficient but also the matrix decomposition may have singularity problem. In this paper, it is proposed to conduct the numerical simulation of nonstationary fluctuating wind field in one-spatial dimension with time-varying coherence based on the wavenumber-frequency spectrum. The simulated multivariable nonstationary wind field with time-varying coherence is transformed into one-dimensional nonstationary random waves in the simulated spatial domain, and the simulation by wavenumber frequency spectrum is derived. So, the proposed simulation method can avoid the complicated Cholesky decomposition. Then, the proper orthogonal decomposition is employed to decompose the time-space dependent evolutionary power spectral density and the Fourier transform of time-varying coherent function, simultaneously, so that the two-dimensional Fast Fourier transform can be applied to further improve the simulation efficiency. Finally, the proposed method is applied to simulate the longitudinal nonstationary fluctuating wind velocity field along the transmission line to illustrate its performances.

Key Words
nonstationary process; fluctuating wind; time-varying coherence; evolutionary power spectrum; wavenumber-frequency spectrum; proper orthogonal decomposition; Fast Fourier transform; transmission tower-line

Address
Department of Civil Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005, China

Abstract
Ultrasonic guided wave testing is a very promising non-destructive testing method for rails, which is of great significance for ensuring the safe operation of railways. On the basis of the semi-analytical finite element (SAFE) method, a analytical model of 59R2 grooved rail was proposed, which is commonly used in the ballastless track of modern tram. The dispersion curves of ultrasonic guided waves in free rail and supported rail were obtained. Sensitivity analysis was then undertaken to evaluate the effect of rail elastic modulus on the phase velocity and group velocity dispersion curves of ultrasonic guided waves. The optimal guided wave mode, optimal excitation point and excitation direction suitable for detecting rail integrity were identified by analyzing the frequency, number of modes, and mode shapes. A sinusoidal signal modulated by a Hanning window with a center frequency of 25 kHz was used as the excitation source, and the propagation characteristics of high-frequency ultrasonic guided waves in the rail were obtained. The results show that the rail pad has a relatively little influence on the dispersion curves of ultrasonic guided waves in the high frequency band, and has a relatively large influence on the dispersion curves of ultrasonic guided waves in the low frequency band below 4 kHz. The rail elastic modulus has significant influence on the phase velocity in the high frequency band, while the group velocity is greatly affected by the rail elastic modulus in the low frequency band.

Key Words
guided wave; tram rail; phase velocity; group velocity; wave propagation

Address
Engineering Research Center of Railway Environment Vibration and Noise, Ministry of Education, East China Jiao Tong University, Nanchang, 330013, China

Abstract
Structural damage identification (SDI) is a crucial step in structural health monitoring. However, some of the existing SDI methods cannot provide enough identification accuracy and efficiency in practice. A novel whale optimization algorithm (WOA) based method is proposed for SDI by weighting modal data and flexibility assurance criterion in this study. At first, the SDI problem is mathematically converted into a constrained optimization problem. Unlike traditional objective function defined using frequencies and mode shapes, a new objective function on the SDI problem is formulated by weighting both modal data and flexibility assurance criterion. Then, the WOA method, due to its good performance of fast convergence and global searching ability, is adopted to provide an accurate solution to the SDI problem, different predator mechanisms are formulated and their probability thresholds are selected. Finally, the performance of the proposed method is assessed by numerical simulations on a simply-supported beam and a 31-bar truss structures. For the given multiple structural damage conditions under environmental noises, the WOA-based SDI method can effectively locate structural damages and accurately estimate severities of damages. Compared with other optimization methods, such as particle swarm optimization and dragonfly algorithm, the proposed WOA-based method outperforms in accuracy and efficiency, which can provide a more effective and potential tool for the SDI problem.

Key Words
structural damage identification; whale optimization algorithm; constrained optimization problem; objective function; flexibility assurance criterion

Address
MOE Key Laboratory of Disaster Forecast and Control in Engineering, School of Mechanics and Construction Engineering,
Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632, China

Abstract
Reinforcement corrosion is one of the major problems in the durability of reinforced concrete structures exposed to aggressive environments. Deterioration caused by reinforcement corrosion reduces the durability and the safety margin of concrete structures, causing excessive costs in managing these structures safely. This paper aims to investigate the effects of reinforcement corrosion on the load bearing capacity deterioration of the corroded reinforced concrete structures. A new analytical method is proposed to predict the crack growth of cover concrete and evaluate the residual strength of concrete structures with corroded reinforcement failing in bond. The structural performance indicators, such as concrete crack growth and flexural strength deterioration rate, are assumed to be a stochastic process for lifetime distribution modelling of structural performance deterioration over time during the life cycle. The Weibull life evolution model is employed for analysing lifetime reliability and estimating remaining useful life of the corroded concrete structures. The results for the worked example show that the proposed approach can provide a reliable method for lifetime performance assessment of the corroded reinforced concrete structures.

Key Words
rebar corrosion; concrete cracking; strength deterioration; lifetime reliability; residual life

Address
Hua-Peng Chen: Institute for Smart Transportation Infrastructure, East China Jiaotong University, Jiangxi 330013, China
Jaya Nepal: School of Architecture, Computing and Engineering, University of East London, London E16 2RD, United Kingdom


Abstract
The analytical approach for stability and response of iced conductor under uniform wind or turbulent wind is presented in this study. A nonlinear dynamic model is established to describe the motion of iced conductor galloping. In the case of uniform wind, the stability condition is derived by analyzing the eigenvalue associated with linearized matrix; The first order and second order approximation of galloping amplitude are obtained using multi-scale method. However, real wind has random characteristics essentially. To accurately evaluate the performance of the galloping iced conductor, turbulence wind should be described by random processes. In the case of turbulence wind, the Lyapunov exponent is conducted to judge the stability condition; The probability density of displacement is obtained by using the path integral method to predict galloping amplitude. An example is proposed to verify the effectiveness of the previous methods. It is shown that the fluctuating component of wind has little influence on the stability of iced conductor, but it can increase galloping amplitude. The analytical results on stability and response are also verified by numerical time stepping method.

Key Words
iced conductor; turbulence wind; galloping; multi-scale method; path integral method

Address
School of Architecture and Civil Engineering, Xiamen University, 422 Siming South Road, Xiamen, China

Abstract
Finite element (FE) model based structural damage detection (SDD) methods play vital roles in effectively locating and quantifying structural damages. Among these methods, structural model updating should be conducted before SDD to obtain benchmark models of real structures. However, the characteristics of updating parameters are not reasonably considered in existing studies. Inspired by the lll∞ norm regularization, a novel anti-sparse representation method is proposed for structural model updating in this study. Based on sensitivity analysis, both frequencies and mode shapes are used to define an objective function at first. Then, by adding l norm penalty, an optimization problem is established for structural model updating. As a result, the optimization problem can be solved by the fast iterative shrinkage thresholding algorithm (FISTA). Moreover, comparative studies with classical regularization strategy, i.e. the l2 norm regularization method, are conducted as well. To intuitively illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method, a 2-DOF spring-mass model is taken as an example in numerical simulations. The updating results show that the proposed method has a good robustness to measurement noises. Finally, to further verify the applicability of the proposed method, a six-storey aluminum alloy frame is designed and fabricated in laboratory. The added mass on each storey is taken as updating parameter. The updating results provide a good agreement with the true values, which indicates that the proposed method can effectively update the model parameters with a high accuracy.

Key Words
structural model updating; l∞ norm regularization; anti-sparse representation; sensitivity analysis

Address
MOE Key Laboratory of Disaster Forecast and Control in Engineering, School of Mechanics and Construction Engineering,
Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632, China

Abstract
Most of the previous works on numerical analysis of galloping of transmission lines are generally based on the quasi-steady theory. However, some wind tunnel tests of the rectangular section or hangers of suspension bridges have shown that the galloping phenomenon has a strong unsteady characteristic and the test results are quite different from the quasi-steady calculation results. Therefore, it is necessary to check the applicability of the quasi-static theory in galloping analysis of the ice-covered transmission line. Although some limited unsteady simulation researches have been conducted on the variation of parameters such as aerodynamic damping, aerodynamic coefficients with wind speed or wind attack angle, there is a need to investigate the numerical simulation of unsteady galloping of two-dimensional iced transmission line with comparison to wind tunnel test results. In this paper, it is proposed to conduct a two dimensional (2-D) unsteady numerical analysis of ice-covered transmission line galloping. First, wind tunnel tests of a typical crescent-shapes iced conductor are conducted firstly to check the subsequent quasi-steady and unsteady numerical analysis results. Then, a numerical simulation model consistent with the aeroelastic model in the wind tunnel test is established. The weak coupling methodology is used to consider the fluid-structure interaction in investigating a two-dimension numerical simulation of unsteady galloping of the iced conductor. First, the flow field is simulated to obtain the pressure and velocity distribution of the flow field. The fluid action on the iced conduct at the coupling interface is treated as an external load to the conductor. Then, the movement of the conduct is analyzed separately. The software ANSYS FLUENT is employed and redeveloped to numerically analyze the model responses based on fluid-structure interaction theory. The numerical simulation results of unsteady galloping of the iced conduct are compared with the measured responses of wind tunnel tests and the numerical results by the conventional quasi-steady theory, respectively.

Key Words
numerical simulation; iced transmission line; galloping; unsteady analysis; quasi-steady theory; wind tunnel test

Address
Department of Civil Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005, China

Abstract
CA mortar layer disengagement will give rise to the overall structural changes of the track and variation in the vibration form of the ballastless track. By establishing a vehicle-track-viaduct coupling analysis and calculation model, it is possible to analyze the CRTS-I type track structure vibration response while the track slab is disengaging with the power flow evaluation method, to compare the two disengaging types, namely partial contact loss at one edge beneath track slab and partial contact loss at midpoint beneath track slab. It can also study how the length of disengaging influences the track structures vibration power. It is showed that when the partial contact loss beneath track slab, and the relative vibration energy level between the rail and the track slab increases significantly within [10, 200]Hz with the same disengaging length, the partial contact loss at one edge beneath track slab has more prominent influence on the vibration power than the partial contact loss at midpoint beneath track slab. With the increase of disengaging length, the relative vibration energy level of the track slab grows sharply, but it will change significantly when it reaches 1.56 m. Little effect will be caused by the relative vibration energy level of the viaduct. The partial contact loss beneath the track slab will cause more power distribution and transmission between the trail and track slab, and will then affect the service life of the rail and track slab.

Key Words
high-speed railway; vibration energy; dynamic compliance method; Contact Loss Beneath Track slab

Address
Engineering Research Center of Railway Environment Virbration and Noise, Ministry of Education,
East China Jiaotong University, Nanchang 330013, China

Abstract
With the rapid development of rail transit, rail transit noise needs to be paid more and more attention. In order to accurately and effectively analyze the characteristics of low-frequency noise, a prediction model of vibration of box girder was established based on the hybrid FE-SEA method. When the train speed is 140 km/h, 200 km/h and 250 km/h, the vibration and noise of the box girder induced by the vertical wheel-rail interaction in the frequency range of 20-500 Hz are analyzed. Detailed analysis of the energy level, sound pressure contribution, modal analysis and vibration loss power of each slab at the operating speed of 140 km /h. The results show that: (1) When the train runs at a speed of 140km/h, the roof contributes more to the sound pressure at the far sound field point. Analyzing the frequency range from 20 to 500 Hz: The top plate plays a very important role in controlling sound pressure, contributing up to 70% of the sound pressure at peak frequencies. (2) When the train is traveling at various speeds, the maximum amplitude of structural vibration and noise generated by the viaduct occurs at 50 Hz. The vibration acceleration of the box beam at the far field point and near field point is mainly concentrated in the frequency range of 31.5-100 Hz, which is consistent with the dominant frequency band of wheel-rail force. Therefore, the main frequency of reducing the vibration and noise of the box beam is 31.5-100 Hz. (3) The vibration energy level and sound pressure level of the box bridge at different speeds are basically the same. The laws of vibration energy and sound pressure follow the rules below: web < wing plate < top plate. (4) When the train is running at a higher speed, the noise and vibration of the bridge structure are larger. (5) The hybrid FE-SEA method is used to predict the structural noise of the box beam, which not only improves the efficiency, but also improves the calculation accuracy, thereby expanding the frequency range of the structural noise and improving the prediction accuracy.

Key Words
box-girder; local vibration; structural noise; hybrid FE-SEA method

Address
1MOE Engineering Research Center of Railway Environment Vibration and Noise, East China
Jiaotong University, Nanchang Jiangxi province, China
2China Railway Electrification Engineering Group Company Limited, Wanshou South Side Jinjiacun No. 1, Fengtai District, Beijing, China
3JSTI Group Company Limited, Fuchunjiang East Street, No. 8, Jian\'ou District, Nanjing, Jiangsu province, China

Abstract
Dynamic analysis of a vehicle-track coupling system is important to structural design, damage detection and condition assessment of the structural system. Deterministic analysis of the vehicle-track coupling system has been extensively studied in the past, however, the structural parameters of the coupling system have uncertainties in engineering practices. It is essential to treat the parameters of the vehicle-track coupling system with consideration of uncertainties. In this paper, a method for predicting the bounds of the vehicle-track coupling system responses with uncertain parameters is presented. The uncertain system parameters are modeled as fuzzy variables instead of conventional random variables with known probability distributions. Then, the dynamic response functions of the coupling system are transformed into a component function based on the high dimensional representation approximation. The Lagrange interpolation method is used to approximate the component function. Finally, the bounds of the system\'s dynamic responses can be predicted by using Monte Carlo method for the interpolation polynomials of the Lagrange interpolation function. A numerical example is introduced to illustrate the ability of the proposed method to predict the bounds of the system\'s dynamic responses, and the results are compared with the direct Monte Carlo method. The results show that the proposed method is effective and efficient to predict the bounds of the system\'s dynamic responses with fuzzy variables.

Key Words
vehicle-track coupling system; dynamic response; fuzzy variables; high dimensional representation approach; Monte Carlo method

Address
Ling Ye, Hua-Peng Chen, Hang Zhou: 1. Engineering Research Center of Railway Environment Vibration and Noise, Ministry of Education,
East China Jiaotong University, Nanchang 330013, China
2. Institute for Smart Transportation Infrastructure, East China Jiaotong University, Jiangxi 330013, China
Sheng-Nan Wang: Xiyi Road Sub-district Office, Organization Department, Xincheng District, Xi\'an, Shaanxi, China


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