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CONTENTS
Volume 73, Number 2, January25 2020
 

Abstract
This study aims to estimate crack location and crack length in damaged beam structures using transfer matrix formulations, which are based on analytical solutions of governing equations of motion. A single variable shear deformation theory (SVSDT) that considers parabolic shear stress distribution along beam cross-section is used, as well as, Timoshenko beam theory (TBT). The cracks are modelled using massless rotational springs that divide beams into segments. In the forward problem, natural frequencies of intact and cracked beam models are calculated for different crack length and location combinations. In the inverse approach, which is the main concern of this paper, the natural frequency values obtained from experimental studies, finite element simulations and analytical solutions are used for crack identification via plots of rotational spring flexibilities against crack location. The estimated crack length and crack location values are tabulated with actual data. Three different beam models that have free-free, fixed-free and simple-simple boundary conditions are considered in the numerical analyses.

Key Words
crack detection; single variable shear deformation theory; transfer matrix formulations

Address
1Department of Civil Engineering, Dokuz Eylul University, 35160, Buca, Izmir, Turkey
2CIRTech Institute, Ho Chi Minh City University of Technology (HUTECH), Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
3Soete Laboratory, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Ghent University, Technologiepark Zwijnaarde 903, B-9052 Zwijnaarde, Belgium

Abstract
Steel spherical hinged bearings have high loading capacity, reliable load transfer, flexible rotation with universal hinge and allowance of large displacement and rotation angle. However, bearings are in complex forced states subject to various load combinations, which lead to the significant influence on integral structural safety. Taking the large-tonnage complex steel spherical hinged bearings of Terminal 2 of Guangzhou Baiyun International Airport as an example, full-scale rotation and shear behaviour tests of the bearings subject to axial tensile load are carried out, and the corresponding finite element simulation analyses are conducted. The results of experiments and finite element simulations are in good agreement with the coincident development tendency of stress and deformation. In addition, the measured rotational moment is less than the calculated moment prescriptive by the code, and the relationship between horizontal displacement and horizontal shear force is linear. Finally, based on these results, the rotation and shear stiffness models of bearings subject to axial tensile load are proposed for the refinement analysis of integral structure.

Key Words
spherical bearings; mechanical properties; steel structure; finite element simulation; test

Address
1School of Civil Engineering and Transportation, South China University of Technology,
2State Key Laboratory of Subtropical Building Science, South China University of Technology,
381 Wushan RD., Tianhe District, Guangzhou, P. R. China

Abstract
This paper presents the applicability of series tuned mass dampers (STMDs) to reduce the multiple resonant responses of continuous railway bridges under high-speed train. The bridge is modeled by two-span Bernoulli-Euler beam with uniform cross-section, and a STMD device consisting of two TMD units installed on the bridge to reduce its multiple resonant vibrations. The system is assumed to be under the action of a high-speed train passage which is modeled as a series of moving forces. Sequential Programming Technique (SQP) is carried out to find the optimal parameters of the STMD that minimizes the maximum peak responses of the bridge. Comparisons with the results available in the literature are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of STMD system in reducing the multiple resonant responses of the continuous railway bridges under high-speed trains.

Key Words
high-speed train; multiple resonance; railway bridge; series tuned mass damper; vibration control

Address
1Department of Civil Engineering, Gümüşhane University, Gümüşhane 29100, Turkey
2Department of Civil Engineering, Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon 61080, Turkey

Abstract
Deep coupling beams are more prone to suffer brittle shear failure. The addition of steel fibers to seismic members such as coupling beams can improve their shear performance and ductility. Based on the test results of steel fiber reinforced concrete(SFRC) coupling beams with span-to-depth ratio between 1.5 and 2.5 under lateral reverse cyclic load, the shear mechanism were analyzed by using strut-and-tie model theory, and the effects of the span-to-depth ratio, compressive strength and volume fraction of steel fiber on shear strengths were also discussed. A simplified calculation method to predict the shear capacity of SFRC deep coupling beams was proposed. The results show that the shear force is mainly transmitted by a strut-and-tie mechanism composed of three types of inclined concrete struts, vertical reinforcement ties and nodes. The influence of span-to-depth ratio on shear capacity is mainly due to the change of inclination angle of main inclined struts. The increasing of concrete compressive strength or volume fraction of steel fiber can improve the shear capacity of SFRC deep coupling beams mainly by enhancing the bearing capacity of compressive struts or tensile strength of the vertical tie. The proposed calculation method is verified using experimental data, and comparative results show that the prediction values agree well with the test ones.

Key Words
steel fiber concrete; deep coupling beams; strut-and-tie model; shear mechanism; shear capacity

Address
1School of Mechanics and Engineering Science, Zhengzhou University, 100 Science Avenue, Zhengzhou 450001, China
2School of Civil Engineering, Zhengzhou University, 100 Science Avenue, Zhengzhou 450001, China

Abstract
The effect of soil foundation plays active role in optimum design of steel space frames when included. However, its influence on design can be calculated after a long iterative procedure. So it requires longer computer time and more computational effort if it is done properly. The main purpose of this study is to investigate how these effects can be calculated in more practical way in a shorter time. The effects of semi-rigid column bases are taken into account in optimum design of steel space frames. This study is carried out by using JAYA algorithm which is a novel and practical method based on a single revision equation. The displacement, stress and geometric size constraints are considered in the optimum design. A computer program is coded in MATLAB to achieve corporation with SAP2000-OAPI (Open Application Programming Interface) for optimum solutions. Four different steel space frames including soil structure interaction taken from literature are investigated according to different semi-rigidly supported models depending on different rotational stiffness values. And the results obtained from analyses are compared with the results available in reference studies. The results of the study show that semi-rigidly supported systems in the range of appropriate rotational stiffness values offer practical solutions in a very short time. And close agreement is obtained with the studies on optimum design of steel space frames including soil effect underneath.

Key Words
JAYA algorithm, steel space frame, optimum design, soil effects, semi rigid column bases

Address
1Department of Civil Engineering, Bayburt University, Bayburt 69000, Turkey
2Department of Civil Engineering, Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon 61000, Turkey

Abstract
This study provides a simplified method for the evaluation of shear lag stress in rectangular box T-joints. The occurrence of shear lag phenomenon in the box T-joint generates stress concentration localized at both web-flange junctions of the beam, which leads to cracking or failure in the weld region of the joint. To prevent such critical circumstance, peak stress at the weld region is required to be checked during a preliminary design stage. In this paper, the shear lag stresses in the T-joints were evaluated using least-work solution in which the longitudinal displacements of the beam flange and web were presumed. The evaluation process considered particularly the effect of column flange flexibility, which was represented by an axial spring model, on the shear lag stress distribution. A simplified method for stress evaluation was provided to avoid solving complex mathematical problems using a stress modification factor beta-s from a parametric study. The results showed that the proposed method was valid for predicting the shear lag stress in the box T-joints manually, as well compared with finite element results. The results are further summarized, discussed, and clarified that more flexible column flange caused higher stress concentration.

Key Words
box T-joints; column flange flexibility; diaphragms; shear lag; stress concentration

Address
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology,
2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguru-ku, Tokyo 152-8552, Japan

Abstract
In this paper, non-linear dynamic buckling behaviour of laminated composite curved panels subjected to dynamic in-plane axial compressive loads is studied using finite element methods. The work is carried out using the finite element software ABAQUS. The curved panels are modelled with S4R element and the nonlinear dynamic equilibrium equations are solved using the ABAQUS/Explicit algorithm. The effect of aspect ratio, radius of curvature and thickness are studied. The importance of orientation of plies in the direction of loading is also reiterated in this study. Vol\'mir\'s criterion is used to calculate the dynamic buckling loads. The panels are subjected to rectangular pulse load of various amplitude and durations and the responses are observed. For particular loading amplitude, a critical value of loading duration is observed beyond which the variation of dynamic buckling load is insignificant. It is also observed that, the value of dynamic bucking load reduces as the loading duration is increased though the reduction is not much after a particular loading duration.

Key Words
dynamic buckling; composite laminates; curved panels; axial loads

Address
Department of Civil Engineering, BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus, Rajasthan, India- 333031

Abstract
This study aims at investigating the size-dependent free vibration of porous nanoplates when exposed to hygrothermal environment and rested on Kerr foundation. Based on the modified power-law model, material properties of porous functionally graded (FG) nanoplates are supposed to change continuously along the thickness direction. The generalized nonlocal strain gradient elasticity theory incorporating three scale factors (i.e. lower- and higher-order nonlocal parameters, strain gradient length scale parameter), is employed to expand the assumption of second shear deformation theory (SSDT) for considering the small size effect on plates. The governing equations are obtained based on Hamilton\'s principle and then the equations are solved using an analytical method. The elastic Kerr foundation, as a highly effected foundation type, is adopted to capture the foundation effects. Three different patterns of porosity (namely, even, uneven and logarithmic-uneven porosities) are also considered to fill some gaps of porosity impact. A comparative study is given by using various structural models to show the effect of material composition, porosity distribution, temperature and moisture differences, size dependency and elastic Kerr foundation on the size-dependent free vibration of porous nanoplates. Results show a significant change in higher-order frequencies due to small scale parameters, which could be due to the size effect mechanisms. Furthermore, Porosities inside of the material properties often present a stiffness softening effect on the vibration frequency of FG nanoplates.

Key Words
free vibration; porous functionally graded materials; nonlocal strain gradient elasticity theory; hygrothermal environment; Kerr foundation

Address
1Department of Mechanical Engineering, Marvdasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Marvdasht, Iran
2State Key Lab of Digital Manufacturing Equipment and Technology, School of Mechanical Science and Engineering,
Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, China

Abstract
This paper investigates the buckling behavior of carbon nanotube-reinforced composite plates supported by Kerr foundation model. In this foundation elastic of Kerr consisting of two spring layers interconnected by a shearing layer. The plates are reinforced by single-walled carbon nanotubes with four types of distributions of uniaxially aligned reinforcement material. The analytical equations are derived and the exact solutions for buckling analyses of such type\'s plates are obtained. The mathematical models provided, and the present solutions are numerically validated by comparison with some available results in the literature. Effect of various reinforced plates parameters such as aspect ratios, volume fraction, types of reinforcement, parameters constant factors of Kerr foundation and plate thickness on the buckling analyses of carbon nanotube-reinforced composite plates are studied and discussed.

Key Words
buckling; plate; Kerr foundation; reinforcement material; nanotube of carbon; volume fraction

Address
1Laboratory de Modélisation et simulation Multi-échaelle,Département de physique,
Faculté des Science Exactes Université de sidi Bel Abbés, Algeria
2 Université Ibn Khaldoun, BP 78 Zaaroura, 14000 Tiaret, Algeria
3 Laboratory of Geomatics and Sustainable Development, IbnKhaldoun University of Tiaret, Algeria
4Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, 31261 Dhahran,
Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia


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