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CONTENTS
Volume 72, Number 3, November10 2019
 

Abstract
In this paper, a general model is developed to predict the distribution of interfacial shear and normal stresses of FG beam reinforced by porous FGM plates under mechanical loading. The beam is assumed to be isotropic with a constant Poisson\'s ratio and power law elastic modulus through the beam thickness. Stress distributions, depending on an inhomogeneity constant, were calculated and presented in graphicals forms. It is shown that both the normal and shear stresses at the interface are influenced by the material and geometry parameters of the composite beam, and it is shown that the inhomogeneities play an important role in the distribution of interfacial stresses. The results presented in the paper can serve as a benchmark for future analyses of functionally graded beams strengthened by imperfect varying properties plates. Numerical comparisons between the existing solutions and the present new solution enable a clear appreciation of the effects of various parameters. The results of this study indicated that the imperfect functionally graded panel strengthening systems are effective in enhancing flexural behavior of the strengthened FGM beams. This research is helpful in understanding the mechanical behaviour of the interface and design of hybrid structures.

Key Words
interfacial stresses; FG beam; strengthening imperfect plate; functionally graded material

Address
1Département de génie civil, Université Ibn Khaldoun Tiaret, BP 78 Zaaroura, Tiaret, Algérie
2Laboratoire de Géomatique et Développement Durable, Université de Tiaret, Algérie

Abstract
This paper investigates the effect of utilizing vacuum bagging process to enhance the bond behavior between fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composites and concrete substrate. Sixty specimens were prepared and tested using double-shear bond test. The effect of various parameters such as vacuum, fiber type, and FRP sheet length and width on the bond strength were investigated. The experimental results revealed that utilizing vacuum leads to improve the bond behavior between FRP composites and concrete. Both the ultimate bond forces and the maximum displacements were enhanced when applying the vacuum which leads to reduction in the amount of FRP materials needed to achieve the required bond strength compared with the un-vacuumed specimens. The efficiency of the enhancement in bond behavior due to vacuum highly depends on the fiber type; using carbon fiber showed higher enhancement in the bond strength compared to the glass fiber when vacuum was applied. On the contrary, specimens with glass fiber showed higher enhancement in the maximum slippage compared to specimens with carbon fibers. Utilizing vacuum does not affect the debonding failure modes but lead to increase in the amount of attached concrete on the surface of the debonded FRP sheet.

Key Words
vacuum; bond; concrete; FRP; slippage; fiber

Address
Nisrin R. Abdelal: Department of Aeronautical Engineering, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid-Jordan
Mohammad R. Irshidat: Department of Civil Engineering, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid- Jordan

Abstract
Damage evolution in the form of void nucleation, propagation and coalescence is the primary cause that is responsible for the ductile failure of microalloyed steels. The Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman (GTN) damage model has proven to be extremely robust for characterizing the microscopic damage behavior of ductile metals. Nonetheless, successful applications of the model on a given metal type are limited by the correct identification of damage parameters as well as the validation of the calculated void growth rate. The purpose of this study is two-fold. First, we aim to identify the damage parameters of the GTN model for Q345 steel (Chinese code), due to its extensive application in mechanical and civil industries in China. The identification of damage parameters is facilitated by the well-suited response surface methodology, followed by a complete analysis of variance for evaluating the statistical significance of the identified model. Second, taking notched Q345 cylinders as an example, finite element simulations implemented with the identified GTN model are performed in order to analyze their microscopic damage behavior. In particular, the void growth rate predicted from the simulations is successfully correlated with experimentally measured acoustic emissions. The quantitative correlation suggests that during the yielding stage the void growth rate increases linearly with the acoustic emissions, while in the strain-hardening and softening period the dependence becomes an exponential function. The combined experimental and finite element approach provides a means for validating simulated void growth rate against experimental measurements of acoustic emissions in microalloyed steels.

Key Words
plastic damage; acoustic emission; parameter identification; SEM morphology; microalloyed Q345 steel

Address
Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Engineering Mechanics, School of Civil Engineering, Southeast University,
Nanjing, Jiangsu 210096, China

Abstract
In this paper, the magnetic field influence on the wave propagation characteristics of graphene nanosheets is examined within the frame work of a two-variable plate theory. The small-scale effect is taken into consideration based on the nonlocal strain gradient theory. For more accurate analysis of graphene sheets, the proposed theory contains two scale parameters related to the nonlocal and strain gradient effects. A derivation of the differential equation is conducted, employing extended principle of Hamilton and solved my means of analytical solution. A refined trigonometric two-variable plate theory is employed in Kinematic relations. The scattering relation of wave propagation in solid bodies which captures the relation of wave number and the resultant frequency is also investigated. According to the numerical results, it is revealed that the proposed modeling can provide accurate wave dispersion results of the graphene nanosheets as compared to some cases in the literature. It is shown that the wave dispersion characteristics of graphene sheets are influenced by magnetic field, elastic foundation and nonlocal parameters. Numerical results are presented to serve as benchmarks for future analyses of graphene nanosheets.

Key Words
refined-trigonometric two-variable plate theory; magnetic field effects; wave dispersion; graphene nanosheets; Nonlocal strain gradient theory (NSGT)

Address
R. Ebrahimi Fardshad, Y. Mohammadi: Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Industrial and Mechanical Engineering, Islamic Azad University,
Qazvin Branch, Qazvin, Iran
F. Ebrahimi: Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Imam Khomeini International University,
Qazvin, Iran

Abstract
Reusing building materials and concrete of old buildings can be a promising strategy for sustained development. In buildings, the performance of materials under elevated temperatures is of particular interest for determining fire resistance. In this study, the effect of pozzolan and aggregate type on properties of concrete exposed to fire was investigated. In doing so, nanosilica with cement-replacement levels of 0,2, and 4% as well as silica fume and ultrafine fly ash with cement-replacement levels of 0, 7.5, and 15% were used to study effect of pozzolan type, and recycled refractory brick (RRB) fine aggregate replacing natural fine aggregate by 0 and 100% was utilized to explore effect of aggregate type. A total of 126 cubic concrete specimens were manufactured and then investigated in terms of compressive strength, ultrasonic pulse velocity, and weight loss at 23 degree celcius and immediately after exposure to 400 and 800 degree celcius. Results show that replacing 100% of natural fine aggregate with recycled refectory brick fine aggregate in the concretes exposed to heat was desirable, in that it led to a mean compressive strength increase of above 25% at 800 degree celcius. In general, among the pozzolans used here, silica fume demonstrated the best performance in terms of retaining the compressive strength of heated concretes. The higher replacement level of silica fume and ultrafine fly ash pozzolans in the mixes containing RRB fine aggregate led to a greater weight loss rate, while the higher replacement level of nanosilica reduced the weight loss rate.

Key Words
recycled refractory brick; concrete; pozzolan; elevated temperatures; ultrasonic pulse velocity; weight loss; silica fume; nanosilica; ultrafine fly ash

Address
Mahdi Nematzadeh, Ardalan Baradaran-Nasiri: Department of Civil Engineering, University of Mazandaran, Babolsar, Iran
Mehdi Hosseini: Department of Civil Engineering, Babol Noshirvani University of Technology, Babol, Iran

Abstract
Self-centering wall (SCW) is a resilient and sustainable structural system which incorporates unbonded posttensioning (PT) tendons to provide self-centering (SC) capacity along with supplementary dissipators to dissipate seismic energy. Hysteretic energy dissipators are usually placed at two sides of SCWs to facilitate ease of postearthquake examination and convenient replacement. To achieve a good prediction for the skeleton curve of the wall, this paper firstly developed an analytical investigation on lateral load responses of self-centering walls with distributed vertical dampers (VD-SCWs) using the concept of elastic theory. A simplified method for the calculation of limit state points is developed and validated by experimental results and can be used in the design of the system. Based on the analytical results, parametric analysis is conducted to investigate the influence of damper and tendon parameters on the performance of VD-SCWs. The results show that the proposed approach has a better prediction accuracy with less computational effects than the Perez method. As compared with previous experimental results, the proposed method achieves up to 60.1% additional accuracy at the effective linear limit (DLL) of SCWs. The base shear at point DLL is increased by 62.5% when the damper force is increased from 0kN to 80kN. The wall stiffness after point ELL is reduced by 69.5% when the tendon stiffness is reduced by 75.0%. The roof deformation at point LLP is reduced by 74.1% when the initial tendon stress is increased from 0.45fpu to 0.65fpu.

Key Words
self-centering walls; vertical dampers; lateral load responses; limit states; parametric analysis

Address
Key Laboratory of Concrete and Prestressed Concrete Structures of the Ministry of Education, Southeast University, Nanjing, China

Abstract
This paper presents experimental and analytical investigations on additional fixed-end rotations resulting from the strain penetration of high-strength reinforcement in reinforced concrete (RC) beam-column connections under monotonic loading. The experimental part included the test of 18 interior beam-column connections with straight long steel bars and 24 exterior beam-column connections with hooked and headed steel bars. Rebar strains along the anchorage length were recorded at the yielding and ultimate states. Furthermore, a numerical program was developed to study the effect of strain penetration in beam-column connections. The numerical results showed good agreement with the test results. Finally, 87 simulated specimens were designed with various parameters based on the test specimens. The effect of concrete compressive strength (fc), yield strength (fy), diameter (db), and anchorage length (lah) of the reinforcement in the beam-column connection was examined through a parametric study. The results indicated that additional fixed-end rotations increased with a decrease in fc and an increase in fy, db and lah. Moreover, the growth rate of additional fixed-end rotations at the yielding state was faster than that at the ultimate state when high-strength steel bars were used.

Key Words
reinforced concrete; bond-slip; strain penetration; numerical analysis; fixed-end rotation

Address
Ling Li, Wenzhong Zheng and Ying Wang:School of Civil Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090, China;
Wenzhong Zheng: Key Lab of Structures Dynamic Behaviour and Control of the Ministry of Education, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090, China; 3Key Lab Smart Prevention and Mitigation of Civil Engineering Disasters of the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090, China

Abstract
Horizontal openings in reinforced concrete (RC) beams are quite often used to accommodate service pipelines. Several research papers are available in the literature describing their effect. RC beams with vertical openings are commonly used to accommodate service lines in residential buildings in Kuwait. However, there are lack of design guidelines and best practices reported in the literature for RC beams with vertical openings, whereas the detailed guidelines are available for beams with horizontal openings. In the present paper, laboratory experiments are conducted on nine RC beams with and without vertical openings. Parametric study has been carried out using nonlinear finite element analysis (FEA) with changes in the diameter of the opening, various positions of the opening along the length and width of the beam, edge distance, etc. 50 finite element simulations were conducted. The FEA results are verified using the results from the laboratory experiments. The study showed that the load carrying capacity of the beam is reduced by 20% for the RC beam with vertical openings placed near the center of the beam compared to a solid beam without an opening. Significant reduction in load carrying capacity is observed for beams with an opening near the support (≈15%). The overall stiffness of the beam, crack pattern and failure modes were not affected due to the presence of the vertical opening. Furthermore, an artificial neural network (ANN) analysis is carried out using the FEA generated data. The results and observations from the ANN and FEA are in good agreement with experimental results.

Key Words
reinforced concrete beam, vertical opening, finite element analysis, artificial neural network

Address
Jafarali Parol, Shaikha Al-Sanad, Jamal Al-Qazweeni,
Hamad J. Al-Duaij and Hasan Kamal: Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, Kuwait
Ammar Ben-Nakhi: Kuwait University, Kuwait

Abstract
Engineered structures built in seismic-prone areas are affected by aftershocks in addition to mainshocks. Although aftershocks generally are lower in magnitude than that of the mainshocks, some aftershocks may have higher intensities; thus, structures should be able to withstand the effect of strong aftershocks as well. This seismic scenario arises for far-field mainshock along with near-field aftershocks. In this study, four 2D reinforced concrete (RC) frames with different numbers of stories were designed in accordance with the current Iranian seismic design code. As a way to evaluate the seismic response of the case-study RC frames, the inter-story drift ratio (IDR) demand, the residual inter-story drift ratio (RIDR) demand, the Park-Ang damage index, and the period elongation ratio can be useful engineering demand parameters for evaluating their seismic performance under mainshock-aftershock sequences. The frame models were analyzed under a set of far-field mainshock, near-fault aftershocks seismic sequences using nonlinear dynamic time-history analysis to investigate the relationship among IDR, RIDR, Park-Ang damage index and period ratio experienced by the frames. The results indicate that the growth of IDR, RIDR, Park-Ang damage index, and period ratio in high-rise and short structures under near-fault aftershocks were significant. It is evident that engineers should consider the effects of near-fault aftershocks on damaged frames that experience far-field mainshocks as well.

Key Words
mainshock-aftershock sequences; inter-story drift ratio; residual inter-story drift ratio, damage index, period elongation, reinforced concrete frames

Address
Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran
2Department of Civil Engineering, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, Mexico City, Mexico


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