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CONTENTS
Volume 32, Number 2, July25 2019
 

Abstract
In this research, the dynamic instability region (DIR) of the sandwich nano-beams are investigated based on nonlocal strain gradient elasticity theory (NSGET) and various higher order shear deformation beam theories (HSDBTs). The sandwich piezoelectric nano-beam is including a homogenous core and face-sheets reinforced with functionally graded (FG) carbon nanotubes (CNTs). In present study, three patterns of CNTs are employed in order to reinforce the top and bottom face-sheets of the beam. In addition, different higher-order shear deformation beam theories such as trigonometric shear deformation beam theory (TSDBT), exponential shear deformation beam theory (ESDBT), hyperbolic shear deformation beam theory (HSDBT), and Aydogdu shear deformation beam theory (ASDBT) are considered to extract the governing equations for different boundary conditions. The beam is subjected to thermal and electrical loads while is resting on Visco-Pasternak foundation. Hamilton principle is used to derive the governing equations of motion based on various shear deformation theories. In order to analysis of the dynamic instability behaviors, the linear governing equations of motion are solved using differential quadrature method (DQM). After verification with validated reference, comprehensive numerical results are presented to investigate the influence of important parameters such as various shear deformation theories, nonlocal parameter, strain gradient parameter, the volume fraction of the CNTs, various distributions of the CNTs, different boundary conditions, dimensionless geometric parameters, Visco-Pasternak foundation parameters, applied voltage and temperature change on the dynamic instability characteristics of sandwich piezoelectric nano-beam.

Key Words
shear deformation theory; reinforcement CNTs composite; sandwich nano-beam; nonlocal strain gradient theory; dynamic instability region

Address
Department of Solid Mechanics, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Kashan, Postal Code 87317-53153, Kashan, Iran.


Abstract
This study is concerned with the stability of laminated composite plates modelled using Eringen\'s nonlocal differential model (ENDM) and a novel refined-hyperbolic-shear-deformable plate theory. The plate is assumed to be lying on the Pasternak elastic foundation and is under the influence of an in-plane magnetic field. The governing equations and boundary conditions are obtained through Hamilton\'s principle. An analytical approach considering Navier series is used to fine the critical bucking load. After verifying with existing results for the reduced cases, the present model is then used to study buckling of the laminated composite plate. Numerical results demonstrate clearly for the first time the roles of size effects, magnetic field, foundation parameters, moduli ratio, geometry, lay-up numbers and sequences, fiber orientations, and boundary conditions. These results could be useful for designing better composites and can further serve as benchmarks for future studies on the laminated composite plates.

Key Words
composite structures; buckling; magnetic field; Eringen nonlocal differential model

Address
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Marvdasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Marvdasht, Iran.


Abstract
This paper aims to study the mechanical performance of three-tower four-span suspension bridges with steel truss girders, including the static and dynamic characteristics of the bridge system, and more importantly, the influence of structural parameters including the side-main span ratio, sag-to-span ratio and the girder stiffness on key mechanical indices. For this purpose, the Oujiang River North Estuary Bridge which is a three-tower four-span suspension bridge with two main spans of 800m under construction in China is taken as an example in this study. This will be the first three-tower suspension bridge with steel truss girders in the world. The mechanical performance study and parametric analysis are conducted based on a validated three-dimensional spatial truss finite element model established for the Oujiang River North Estuary Bridge using MIDAS Civil. It is found that a relatively small side-main span ratio seems to be quite appropriate from the perspective of mechanical performance. And decreasing the sag-to-span ratio is an effective way to reduce the horizontal force subjected to the midtower and improve the antiskid safety of the main cable, while the vertical stiffness of the bridge will be reduced. However, the girder stiffness is shown to be of minimal significance on the mechanical performance. The findings from this paper can be used for design of three-tower suspension bridges with steel truss girders.

Key Words
three-tower suspension bridge; steel truss girder; mechanical performance; parametric analysis; finite element analysis

Address
(1) Jin Cheng:
State Key Laboratory for Disaster Reduction in Civil Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai, China;
(2) Jin Cheng, Mingsai Xu, Hang Xu:
Department of Bridge Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai, China.

Abstract
This paper presents an investigation on seismic behavior of out-of-code Q690 circular high-strength concrete-filled thin-walled steel tubular (HCFTST) columns made up of high-strength (HS) steel tubes (yield strength fy ≥ 690 MPa). Eight Q690 circular HCFTST columns with various diameter-to-thickness (D/t) ratios, concrete cylinder compressive strengths) fc and axial compression ratios (n) were tested under the constant axial loading and reversed cyclic lateral loading. The obtained lateral load-displacement hysteretic curves, energy dissipation, skeleton curves and ductility, and stiffness degradation were analyzed in detail to reflect the influences of tested parameters. Subsequently, a simplified shear strength model was derived and validated by the test results. Finally, a finite element analysis (FEA) model incorporating a stress triaxiality dependent fracture criterion was established to simulate the seismic behavior. The systematic investigation indicates the following: compared to the D/t ratio and axial compression ratio, improving the concrete compressive strength (e.g., the HS thin-walled steel tube filled with HS concrete) had a slight influence on the ductility but an obvious enhancement of energy dissipation and peak load; the simplified shear strength model based on truss mechanism accurately predicted the shear-resisting capacity; and the established FEA model incorporating steel fracture criterion simulated well the seismic behavior (e.g., hysteretic curve, local buckling and fracture), which can be applied to the seismic analysis and design of Q690 circular HCFTST columns.

Key Words
Q690 circular HCFTST columns; seismic behavior; deteriorating behavior; simplified shear strength model; stress triaxiality dependent fracture criterion

Address
Department of Civil Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xianning West Road No. 28, Xi'an, P.R. China.


Abstract
For the first time, longitudinal and transverse wave propagation of triclinic nanobeam is investigated via a size-dependent shear deformation theory including stretching effect. Furthermore, the influence of initial stress is studied. To consider the size-dependent effects, the nonlocal strain gradient theory is used in which two small scale parameters predict the behavior of wave propagation more accurately. The Hamiltonian principle is adopted to obtain the governing equations of wave motion, then an analytic technique is applied to solve the problem. It is demonstrated that the wave characteristics of the nanobeam rely on the wave number, nonlocal parameter, strain gradient parameter, initial stress, and elastic foundation. From this paper, it is concluded that the results of wave dispersion in isotropic and anisotropic nanobeams are almost the same in the presented case study. So, in this case, triclinic nanobeam can be approximated with isotropic model.

Key Words
anisotropic materials; wave propagation; stretching effect; initial stress

Address
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Marvdasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Marvdasht, Iran.


Abstract
In this research, the dynamic stability and nonlinear vibration behavior of a smart rotating sandwich cylindrical shell is studied. The core of the structure is a functionally graded material (FGM) which is integrated by functionally graded piezoelectric material (FGPM) layers subjected to electric field. The piezoelectric layers at the inner and outer surfaces used as actuator and sensor, respectively. By applying the energy method and Hamilton\'s principle, the governing equations of sandwich cylindrical shell derived based on first-order shear deformation theory (FSDT). The Galerkin method is used to discriminate the motion equations and the equations are converted to the form of the ordinary differential equations in terms of time. The perturbation method is employed to find the relation between nonlinear frequency and the amplitude of vibration. The main objective of this research is to determine the nonlinear frequencies and nonlinear vibration control by using sensor and actuator layers. The effects of geometrical parameters, power law index of core, sensor and actuator layers, angular velocity and scale transformation parameter on nonlinear frequency-amplitude response diagram and dynamic stability of sandwich cylindrical shell are investigated. The results of this research can be used to design and vibration control of rotating systems in various industries such as aircraft, biomechanics and automobile manufacturing.

Key Words
dynamic stability; nonlinear vibration; rotating sandwich cylindrical shell; functionally graded core; functionally graded piezoelectric layers, perturbation method

Address
Department of Solid Mechanics, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Kashan, Kashan, 87317-53153, Iran.


Abstract
Since conical sandwich shells are important structures in the modern industries, in this paper, for the first time, vibration behavior of the truncated conical sandwich shells which include temperature dependent porous FG face sheets and temperature dependent homogeneous core in various thermal conditions are investigated. A high order theory of sandwich shells which modified by considering the flexibility of the core and nonlinear von Karman strains are utilized. Power law rule which modified by considering the two types of porosity volume fractions are applied to model the functionally graded materials. By utilizing the Hamilton\'s energy principle, and considering the in-plane and thermal stresses in the face-sheets and the core, the governing equations are obtained. A Galerkin procedure is used to solve the equations in a simply supported boundary condition. Uniform, linear and nonlinear temperature distributions are used to model the effect of the temperature changing in the sandwich shell. To verify the results of this study, they are compared with FEM results obtained by Abaqus software and for special cases with the results in literatures. Eigen frequencies variations are surveyed versus the temperature changing, geometrical effects, porosity, and some others in the numerical examples.

Key Words
free vibration; truncated conical sandwich shell; FGM; temperature-dependent; porosity

Address
(1) Mohsen Rahmani, Younes Mohammadi:
Faculty of Industrial and Mechanical Engineering, Qazvin Branch, Islamic Azad University, Qazvin, Islamic Republic of Iran;
(2) Farshad Kakavand:
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Takestan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Takestan, Islamic Republic of Iran.

Abstract
This paper presents the combination resonances of FG porous (FGP) cylindrical shell under two-term excitation. The effect of structural damping on the system response is also considered. With regard to classical plate theory of shells, von-Karman equation and Hook law, the relations of stress-strain is derived for shell. According to the Galerkin method, the discretized motion equation is obtained. The combination resonances are obtained by using the method of multiple scales. Four types of FGP distributions consist of uniform porosity, non-symmetric porosity soft, non-symmetric porosity stiff and symmetric porosity distribution are considered. The influence of various porosity distributions, porosity coefficients of cylindrical shell and amplitude excitations on the combination resonances for FGP cylindrical shells is investigated.

Key Words
cylindrical shell; FG porous material; combination resonance; multiple scales method; two-term excitation

Address
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Shahrood University of Technology, Shahrood, Iran.


Abstract
The self-centering capacity and energy dissipation performance have been recognized critically for increasing the seismic performance of structures. This paper presents an innovative steel moment frame with self-centering steel reinforced concrete (SRC) wall panel incorporating replaceable energy dissipation devices (SF-SCWD). The self-centering mechanism and energy dissipation mechanism of the structure were validated by cyclic tests. The earthquake resilience of wall panel has the ability to limit structural damage and residual drift, while the energy dissipation devices located at wall toes are used to dissipate energy and reduce the seismic response. The oriented post-tensioned strands provide additional overturning force resistance and help to reduce residual drift. The main parameters were studied by numerical analysis to understand the complex structural behavior of this new system, such as initial stress of post-tensioning strands, yield strength of damper plates and height-width ratio of the wall panel. The static push-over analysis was conducted to investigate the failure process of the SF-SCWD. Moreover, nonlinear time history analysis of the 6-story frame was carried out, which confirmed the availability of the proposed structures in permanent drift mitigation.

Key Words
steel frame; self-centering; energy dissipation devices; residual drift; lateral-force resistance

Address
School of Civil Engineering, Chang'an University, Xi'an 710061, China.


Abstract
Nonlocal elasticity and Reddy plant theory are used to study the vibration response of functionally graded (FG) nanoplates resting on two parameters elastic medium called Pasternak foundation. Nonlocal higher order theory accounts for the effects of both scale and the effect of transverse shear deformation, which becomes significant where stocky and short nanoplates are concerned. It is assumed that the properties of FG nanoplate follow a power law through the thickness. In addition, Poisson\'s ratio is assumed to be constant in this model. Both Winkler-type and Pasternak-type foundation models are employed to simulate the interaction of nanoplate with surrounding elastic medium. Using Hamilton\'s principle, size-dependent governing differential equations of motion and corresponding boundary conditions are derived. A differential quadrature approach is being utilized to discretize the model and obtain numerical solutions for various boundary conditions. The model is validated by comparing the results with other published results.

Key Words
vibration; functionally graded nanoplate; nonlocal theory; elastic foundation

Address
(1) A.M. Fattahi:
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran;
(2) Babak Safaei:
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China;
(3) E. Moaddab:
Seraj Institute of Higher Education, Tabriz, Iran.


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