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CONTENTS
Volume 32, Number 1, July10 2019
 

Abstract
The aim of the paper is the prediction of the seismic collapse mode of steel storage pallet racks under seismic loads. The attention paid by the researchers on the behaviour of the industrial steel storage pallets racks is increased over the years thanks to their high dead-to-live load ratio. In fact, these structures, generally made by cold-formed thin-walled profiles, present very low structural costs but can support large and expensive loads. The paper presents a prediction of the seismic collapse modes of multi-storey racks. The analysis of the possible collapse modes has been made by an approach based on the kinematic theorem of plastic collapse extended to the second order effects by means of the concept of collapse mechanism equilibrium curve. In this way, the dissipative behaviour of racks is determined with a simpler method than the pushover analysis. Parametric analyses have been performed on 24 racks, differing for the geometric layout and cross-section of the components, designed in according to the EN16618 and EN15512 requirements. The obtained results have highlighted that, in all the considered cases, the global collapse mechanism, that is the safest one, never develops, leading to a dangerous situation that must be avoided to preserve the structure during a seismic event. Although the studied racks follow all the codes prescriptions, the development of a dissipative collapse mechanism is not achieved. In addition, also the variability of load distribution has been considered, reflecting the different pallet positions assumed during the in-service life of the racks, to point out its influence on the collapse mechanism. The information carried out from the paper can be very useful for designers and manufacturers because it allows to better understand the racks behaviour in seismic load condition.

Key Words
steel storage pallet racks; thin-walled members; seismic performance; collapse mechanism; TPCM

Address
(1) Rosario Montuori, Elide Nastri:
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Salerno, Salerno, Italy;
(2) Giammaria Gabbianelli:
University School for Advanced Studies IUSS Pavia, Pavia, Italy;
(3) Marco Simoncelli:
Department of Architecture, Built Environment and Construction Engineering, Politecnico di Milano, Milano, Italy.

Abstract
This study investigates the flexural behavior of steel-concrete composite beams strengthened with prestressed carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) plates. An innovative mechanical anchorage system was developed. The components of the system can be easily assembled on site before applying a prestressing force, and removed from the structures after strengthening is completed. A total of seven steel-concrete composite specimens including four simply supported beams strengthened at the positive moment region and three continuous beams strengthened at the negative moment region were tested statically until failure. Experimental results showed that the use of prestressed CFRP plates enhanced the flexural capacity and reduced the mid-span deflection of the beams. Furthermore, by prestressing the CFRP laminates, the material was used more efficiently, and the crack resistance of the continuous composite specimens at the central support was significantly improved after strengthening. Overall, the anchorage system proved to be practical and feasible for the strengthening of steel-concrete composite beams. The theoretical analysis of ultimate bearing capacity is reported, and good agreement between analytical values and experimental results is achieved.

Key Words
anchorage; fiber-reinforced polymer; prestressing; steel-concrete composite beam; flexural behavior; bridge strengthening; negative moment

Address
School of Transportation, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189, China.


Abstract
This paper presents experimental and analytical studies to evaluate the cyclic behaviour of Circular Reinforced Concrete column Steel beam (CRCS) connections. Two 3/4-scale CRCS specimens are tested under quasi-static reversed cyclic loading. Specimens were strengthened with a tube plate (TP) and a steel doubler plate (SDP). Furthermore; nine interior beam-through type RCS connections are simulated using nonlinear three-dimensional finite element method using ABAQUS software and are verified with experimental results. The results revealed that using the TP improves the performance of the panel zone by providing better confinement to the concrete. Utilizing the TP at the panel zone may absorb and distribute stress in this region. Results demonstrate that TP can be used instead of SDP. Test records indicate that specimens with TP, with and without SDP maintained their maximum strength up to 4% drift angle, satisfying the recommendation given by AISC341-2016 for composite special moment-resisting frames.

Key Words
RCS connection; composite structures; tube plate; steel doubler plate; finite element method (FEM)

Address
(1) Rahman Jafari:
Civil Engineering Department, University of Science and Culture, Tehran, Iran;
(2) Nader K.A. Attari:
Structural Engineering Department, Road, Housing, and Urban Development Research Center, Tehran, Iran;
(3) Ali Nikkhoo:
Civil Engineering Department, University of Science and Culture, Tehran, Iran;
(4) Saeid Alizadeh:
Civil Engineering Department, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand.

Abstract
Hollow steel-reinforced concrete-filled GFRP tubular member is a new kind of composite members. Firstly set the mold in the GFRP tube (non-bearing component), then set the longitudinal reinforcements with stirrups (steel reinforcement cage) between the GFRP tube and the mold, and filled the concrete between them. Through the axial compression test of the hollow steel-reinforced concrete-filled GFRP tubular member, the working mechanism and failure modes of composite members were obtained. Based on the experiment, when the load reached the ranges of 55-70%Pu (Pu-ultimate load), white cracks appeared on the surface of the GFRP tubes of specimens. At that time, the confinement effects of the GFRP tubes on core concrete were obvious. Keep loading, the ranges of white cracks were expanding, and the confinement effects increased proportionally. In addition, the damages of specimens, which were accompanied with great noise, were marked by fiber breaking and resin cracking on the surface of GFRP tubes, also accompanied with concrete crushing. The bearing capacity of the axially compressed components increased with the increase of reinforcement ratio, and decreased with the increase of hollow ratio. When the reinforcement ratio was increased from 0 to 4.30%, the bearing capacity was increased by about 23%. When the diameter of hollow part was decreased from 55mm to 0, the bearing capacity was increased by about 32%.

Key Words
GFRP tube; hollow steel-reinforced concrete-filled member; axial compression; mechanical property; experimental study

Address
College of Resources and Civil Engineering, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819, P.R. China.


Abstract
Pushover analysis captures the behavior of a structure from fully elastic to collapse. In this analysis, the structure is subjected to increasing lateral load with constant gravity one. Neglecting the effects of the higher modes and the changes in the vibration characteristics during the nonlinear analysis are the main obstacles of the proposed lateral load patterns. To overcome these drawbacks, whereas some methods have been presented to achieve updated lateral load distribution, these methods are not precisely capable to predict the response of structures, precisely. In this study, a new method based on optimization procedure is developed to obtain a lateral load pattern for which the difference between the floor displacements of pushover and Nonlinear Dynamic Analyses (NDA) is minimal. For this purpose, an optimization problem is considered and the genetic algorithm is applied to calculate optimal lateral load pattern. Three special moment resisting steel frames with different dynamic characteristics are simulated and their optimal load patterns are derived. The floor displacements of these frames subjected to the proposed and conventional load patterns are acquired and the accuracy of them is evaluated via comparing with NDA responses. The outcomes reveal that the proposed lateral load distribution is more accurate than the previous ones.

Key Words
pushover analysis; lateral load; optimization procedure; nonlinear dynamic analysis; floor displacements

Address
(1) Alireza Habibi:
Department of Civil Engineering, Shahed University, Tehran, Iran;
(2) Hooman Saffari:
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Iran;
(3) Mehdi Izadpanah:
Department of Civil Engineering, Kermanshah University of Technology, Kermanshah, Iran.

Abstract
This study introduces new connections that connect the beam to the column with slit dampers. Plastic deformations and damages concentrate on slit dampers. The slit dampers prevent plastic damages of column, beam, welds and panel zone and act as fuses. The slit dampers were prepared with IPE profiles that had some holes in the webs. In this paper, two experimental specimens were made. In first specimen (SDC1), just one slit damper connected the beam to the column and one IPE profile with no holes connected the bottom flange of the beam to the column. The second specimen (SDC2) had two similar dampers which connected the top and bottom flange of the beam to the column. Cyclic loading was applied on Specimens. The cyclic displacements conditions continued until 0.06 radian rotation of connection. The experimental observations showed that the bending moment of specimen SDC2 increased until 0.04 story drift. In specimen SDC1, the bending moment decreases after 0.03 story drift. Test results indicate the high performance of the proposed connection. Based on the results, the specimen with two slit damper (SDC2) has higher seismic performance and dissipates more energy in loading process than specimen SDC1. Theoretical formulas were extended for the proposed connections. Numerical studies have been done by ABAQUS software. The theoretical and numerical results had good agreements with the experimental data. Based on the experimental and numerical investigations, the high ductility of connection is obtained from plastic damages of slit dampers. The most flexural moment of specimen SDC1 occurred at 3% story drift and this value was 1.4 times the plastic moment of the beam section. This parameter for SDC2 was 1.73 times the plastic moment of the beam section and occurred at 4% story drift. The dissipated energy ratio of SDC2 to SDC1 is equal to 1.51.

Key Words
slit damper; steel connection; moment capacity; energy dissipation; ductility; cyclic loading

Address
Department of Civil Engineering, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Najafabad, Iran.


Abstract
In the present study, the effects of six different ground motion scaling methods on inelastic response of nonlinear steel moment frames (SMFs) are studied. The frames were designed using energy-based PBPD approach with the design concept using pre-selected target drift and yield mechanism as performance limit state. Two target spectrums are considered: maximum credible earthquake spectrum (MCE) and design response spectrum (DRS). In order to investigate the effects of ground motion scaling methods on the response of the structures, totally 3216 nonlinear models including three frames with 4, 8 and 16 stories are designed using PBPD approach and then they are subjected to ensembles of ground motions including 42 far-fault and 90 near-fault pulse-type records which were scaled using the six different scaling methods in accordance to the two aforementioned target spectrums. The distributions of maximum inter-story drift over the height of the structures are computed and compared. Finally, the efficiency and reliability of each ground motion scaling method to estimate the maximum nonlinear inter-story drift of special steel moment frames designed by energy-based PBPD approach are statistically investigated, and the most suitable scaling methods with the lowest dispersion for two groups of earthquake ground motions are introduced.

Key Words
near-fault earthquakes; pulse period; steel moment frame; scaling methods; performance-based-plastic design; seismic drift demand

Address
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Mazandaran, Babolsar, Iran.


Abstract
This paper deals with experimental investigation and modeling of the static behavior of a novel RCS beam-column exterior joint. The studied joint detail is a through-column type in which an H steel profile totally embedded inside RC column is directly welded to the steel beam. The H steel profile was covered by two supplementary plates in the joint area in order to avoid the stirrups resisting shear in the joint area. Two full-scale through-column-type RCS joints were tested under static loading. The objectives of the tests were to examine the connection performance and to highlight the contribution of two supplementary plates on the shear resistance of the joint. A reliable nonlinear 3D finite element model was developed using ABAQUS software to predict the response and behavior of the studied RCS joint. An extensive parametric study was performed to investigate the influences of the stirrups, the encased profile length and supplementary plate length on the behavior of the studied RCS joint.

Key Words
beam-column connection; RCS joint; FE modeling

Address
(1) Xuan Huy Nguyen, Dang Dung Le:
Faculty of Construction Engineering, University of Transport and Communications, Vietnam;
(2) Quang-Huy Nguyen:
Department of Civil Engineering and Urban Planning, INSA de Rennes, France.

Abstract
Bridges, offshore oil platforms and other infrastructures usually require at some point in their service life rehabilitation for reasons such as aging and corrosion. This study explores the application of adhesively bonded CFRP patches in repair of corroded circular hollow sectional (CHS) steel beams. An experimental program involving three-point bending tests was conducted on intact, corroded, and repaired CHS beams. Meso-scale finite element (FE) models of the tested beams were developed and validated by the experimental results. A parametric study using the validated FE models was performed to examine the effects of different CFRP patch parameters, including patch dimensions, number of plies and stacking sequence, on efficiency of the repair system. Results indicates that the corrosion reduced elastic stiffness and flexural strength of the undamaged beam by 8.9 and 15.1%, respectively, and composite repair recovered 10.7 and 18.9% of those, respectively, compared to undamaged beam. These findings demonstrated the ability of CFRP patch repair to restore full bending capacity of the corroded CHS steel beam. The parametric study revealed that strength and stiffness of the repaired CHS beam can be enhanced by changing the fiber orientations of wet composite patch without increasing the quantity of repair materials.

Key Words
CFRP; patch; repair; circular hollow sectional steel beam; corrosion

Address
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 32610 Seri Iskandar, Perak, Malaysia.


Abstract
This paper presents the flexural behaviour of stainless steel beam-to-tubular column joints with extended endplates subjected to static loading. Moment-rotation relationships were investigated numerically by using Abaqus software with geometric and material nonlinearity considered. The prediction of damages among components was achieved through ductile damage models, and the influence of initial geometric imperfections and residual stresses was evaluated in large fabricated stainless steel joints involving hollow columns and concrete-filled columns. Parametric analysis was subsequently conducted to assess critical factors that could affect the flexural performance significantly in terms of the initial stiffness and moment resistance. A comparison between codes of practice and numerical results was thereafter made, and design recommendations were proposed for further applications. Results suggest that the finite element model can predict the structural behaviour reasonably well with the component damage consistent with test outcomes. Initial geometric imperfections and residual stresses are shown to have little effect on the moment-rotation responses. A series of parameters that can influence the joint behaviour remarkably include the strain-hardening exponents, stainless steel strength, diameter of bolts, thickness of endplates, position of bolts, section of beams and columns. AS/NZS 2327 is more reliable to predict the joint performance regarding the initial stiffness and moment capacity compared to EN 1993-1-8.

Key Words
stainless steel; beam-to-column joint; tubular column; concrete-filled column; residual stress

Address
School of Civil Engineering, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia.



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