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CONTENTS
Volume 30, Number 6, March25 2019
 

Abstract
This paper is dedicated to nonlinear static and free vibration analysis of Uniform Distributed Carbon Nanotube Reinforced Composite (UD-CNTRC) structures under in-plane loading. The authors have suggested an efficient six-node triangular element. Mixed Interpolation of Tensorial Components (MITC) approach is employed to alleviate the membrane locking phenomena. Moreover, the behavior of the well-known LST element is considerably improved by applying an additional linear interpolation on the strain fields. Based on the rule of mixture, the properties of CNTRC are obtained. In this study, only the uniform distributed CNTs are employed through the thickness direction of element. To achieve the natural frequencies and shape modes, the eigenvalue problem is also solved. Using Total Lagrangian Principles, large amplitude free vibration is considered based on the first normalized mode shape of structure. Different well-known plane problem benchmarks and some proposed ones are studied to validate the accuracy and capability of authors' formulations. In addition, the effects of length to the height ratio of beam, CNT's characteristics, support conditions and normalized amplitude parameter on the linear and nonlinear vibration parameters are investigated.

Key Words
nonlinear vibration; carbon nano-tube; MITC approach; plane triangular element; Total Lagrangian principles

Address
Department of Civil Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran.


Abstract
In this paper, the effects of inevitable out-of-plane defects on the postbuckling behavior of single-layered graphene sheets (SLGSs) under in-plane loadings are investigated based on nonlocal first order shear deformation theory (FSDT) and von-Karman nonlinear model. A generic imperfection function, which takes the form of the products of hyperbolic and trigonometric functions, is employed to model out-of-plane defects as initial geometrical imperfections of SLGSs. Nonlinear equilibrium equations are derived from the principle of virtual work and variational formulation. The postbuckling equilibrium paths of imperfect graphene sheets (GSs) are presented by solving the governing equations via isogeometric analysis (IGA) and Newton-Raphson iterative method. Finally, the sensitivity of the postbuckling behavior of GS to shape, amplitude, extension on the surface, and location of initial imperfection is studied. Results showed that the small scale and initial imperfection effects on the postbuckling behavior of defective SLGS are important and cannot be ignored.

Key Words
out-of-plane defect; graphene sheet; postbuckling; nonlocal elasticity; first order shear deformation theory; isogeometric analysis

Address
(1) Ahmad Soleimani, Amin Hadi, Mohamad Hasan Naei:
School of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran;
(2) Ahmad Soleimani:
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Jiroft, Jiroft, Iran;
(3) Kia Dastani:
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran.

Abstract
Prestressed concrete (PC) bridges using corrugated steel webbing have emerged as one of the most promising forms of steel-concrete composite bridge. However, their long-term behavior is not well understood, especially in the case of largespan bridges. In order to study the time-dependent performance, a large three-span PC bridge with corrugated steel webbing was compared to a similar conventional PC bridge to examine their respective time-dependent characteristics. In addition, a threedimensional finite element method with step-by-step time integration that takes into account cantilever construction procedures was used to predict long-term behaviors such as deflection, stress distribution and prestressing loss. These predictions were based upon four well-established empirical creep prediction models. PC bridges with a corrugated steel web were observed to have a better long-term performance relative to conventional PC bridges. In particular, it is noted that the pre-cambering for PC bridges with a corrugated steel web could be smaller than that of conventional PC bridges. The ratio of side-to-mid span has great influence on the long-term deformation of PC bridges with a corrugated steel web, and it is suggested that the design value should be between 0.4 and 0.6. However, the different creep prediction models still showed a weak homogeneity, thus, the further experimental research and the development of health monitoring systems are required to further progress our understanding of the long-term behavior of PC bridges with corrugated steel webbing.

Key Words
long-term behavior; prestressed concrete; corrugated steel web; bridge; numerical simulation; creep prediction

Address
(1) Yulin Zhan, Fang Liu, Zhiqiang Zhang, Zengqiang Duan, Ruinian Song:
Department of Bridge Engineering, School of Civil Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Sichuan 610031, China;
(2) Zhongguo John Ma:
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, John D.Tickle, TN 37996-2313, USA.

Abstract
A total of 36 carbon steel and stainless steel bolted connections subjected to shear loading at different strain rates was experimentally investigated. The connection specimens were fabricated from carbon steel grades 1.20 mm G500 and 1.90 mm G450, as well as cold-formed stainless steel types EN 1.4301 and EN 1.4162 with nominal thickness 1.50 mm. The connection tests were conducted by displacement control test method. The strain rates of 10 mm/min and 20 mm/min were used. Structural behaviour of the connection specimens tested at different strain rates was investigated in terms of ultimate load, elongation corresponding to ultimate load and failure mode. Generally, it is shown that the higher strain rate on the bolted connection specimens, the higher ultimate load was obtained. The ultimate loads were averagely 2-6% higher, while the corresponding elongations were averagely 8-9% higher for the test results obtained from the strain rate of 20 mm/min compared with those obtained from the lower strain rates (1.0 mm/min for carbon steel and 1.5 mm/min for stainless steel). The connection specimens were generally failed in plate bearing of the carbon steel and stainless steel. It is shown that increasing the strain rate up to 20 mm/min generally has no effect on the bearing failure mode of the carbon steel and stainless steel bolted connections. The test strengths and failure modes were compared with the results predicted by the bolted connection design rules in international design specifications, including the Australian/New Zealand Standard (AS/NZS4600 2018), Eurocode 3 - Part 1.3 (EC3-1.3 2006) and North American Specification (AISI S100 2016) for cold-formed carbon steel structures as well as the American Specification (ASCE 2002), AS/NZS4673 (2001) and Eurocode 3 - Part 1.4 (EC3-1.4 2015) for stainless steel structures. It is shown that the AS/NZS4600 (2018), EC3-1.3 (2006) and AISI S100 (2016) generally provide conservative predictions for the carbon steel bolted connections. Both the ASCE (2002) and the EC3-1.4 (2015) provide conservative predictions for the stainless steel bolted connections. The EC3-1.3 (2006) generally provided more accurate predictions of failure mode for carbon steel bolted connections than the AS/NZS4600 (2018) and the AISI S100 (2016). The failure modes of stainless steel bolted connections predicted by the EC3-1.4 (2015) are more consistent with the test results compared with those predicted by the ASCE (2002).

Key Words
bearing failure; bolted connection; carbon steel; experimental investigation; strain rate; stainless steel

Address
(1) Yancheng Cai:
Department of Civil Engineering, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong;
(2) Ben Young:
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong
(Formerly, Department of Civil Engineering, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong).

Abstract
Time-dependent creep analysis of a rotating functionally graded cantilever beam with trapezoidal longitudinal cross section subjected to thermal and inertia loading is investigated using first-order shear deformation theory (FSDT). The model described in this paper is a simple simulation of a turbine blade working under creep condition. The material is a metal based composite reinforced by a ceramic where the creep properties of which has been described by the Sherby\' s constitutive model. All mechanical and thermal properties except Poisson\'s ratio are assumed to be variable longitudinally based on the volume fraction of constituent. The principle of virtual work as well as first order shear deformation theory is used to derive governing equations. Longitudinal distribution of displacements and stresses are investigated for various volume fractions of reinforcement. Method of successive elastic solution is employed to obtain history of stresses and creep deformations. It is found that stresses and displacements approach their steady state values after 40000 hours. The results presented in this paper can be used for selection of appropriate longitudinal distribution of reinforcement to achieve the desired stresses and displacements.

Key Words
time-dependent creep; successive elastic solution; functionally graded trapezoidal beam; first-order shear deformation theory (FSDT)

Address
Department of Solid Mechanics, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Kashan, I.R. Iran.


Abstract
In this study, on-site testing was carried out to investigate the vibration performance of a composite steel-bar truss slab with steel girder system. Ambient vibration was performed to capture the primary vibration parameters (natural frequencies, damping ratios, and mode shapes). The composite floor possesses low frequency (< 10 Hz) and damping (< 2%). Based on experimental, theoretical, and numerical analyses on natural frequencies and mode shapes, the boundary condition of SCSC (i.e., two opposite edges simply-supported and the other two edges clamped) is deemed more reasonable for the composite floor. Walking excitations by one person (single excitation), two persons (dual excitation), and three persons (triple excitation) were considered to evaluate the vibration serviceability of the composite floor. The measured acceleration results show a satisfactory vibration perceptibility. For design convenience and safety, a crest factor

Key Words
steel-bar truss slab; composite floor; human-structure interaction; vibration serviceability; crest factor

Address
(1) Jiepeng Liu, Liang Cao, Y. Frank Chen:
School of Civil Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400045, China;
(2) Jiepeng Liu, Liang Cao, Y. Frank Chen:
Key Laboratory of New Technology for Construction of Cities in Mountain Area (Chongqing University), Ministry of Education, Chongqing 400045, China.

Abstract
This research study investigates experimentally and analytically the axial compressive behaviour of Concrete Filled Fiber Reinforced Polymer Tube (CFFT) columns with and without Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) bars. The experimental program comprises five circular columns of 204-206 mm outer diameter and 800-812 mm height. All columns were tested under concentric axial compressive loads. It was found that CFFT columns with and without FRP bars achieved higher peak axial compressive loads and corresponding axial deformations than conventional steel reinforced concrete (RC) column. The contribution of FRP bars was about 12.1% of the axial compressive loads carried by CFFT columns reinforced with FRP bars. Axial load-axial deformation (P

Key Words
CFFT; FRP bars; axial load-deformation curve; axial load carrying capacity; columns

Address
(1) Qasim S. Khan:
Civil Engineering Department, University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore, Pakistan;
(2) M. Neaz Sheikh, Muhammad N.S. Hadi:
School of Civil, Mining and Environmental Engineering, University ofWollongong, Australia.

Abstract
In the present work, free vibration of beams made of imperfect functionally graded materials (FGMs) including porosities is investigated. Because of faults during process of manufacture, micro voids or porosities may arise in the FGMs, and this situation causes imperfection in the structure. Therefore, material properties of the beams are assumed to vary continuously through the thickness direction according to the volume fraction of constituents described with the modified rule of mixture including porosity volume fraction which covers two types of porosity distribution over the cross section, i.e., even and uneven distributions. The governing equations of power law FGM (P-FGM) and sigmoid law FGM (S-FGM) beams are derived within the frame works of classical beam theory (CBT) and first order shear deformation beam theory (FSDBT). The resulting equations are solved using separation of variables technique and assuming FG beams are simply supported at both ends. To validate the results numerous comparisons are carried out with available results of open literature. The effects of types of volume fraction function, beam theory and porosity volume fraction, as well as the variations of volume fraction index, span to depth ratio and porosity volume fraction, on the first three non-dimensional frequencies are examined in detail.

Key Words
vibration; power-law FGM; sigmoid FGM; porosity volume fraction; classical beam theory; first order shear deformation beam theory

Address
Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Suleyman Demirel University, Cunur, Isparta, Turkey.



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