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CONTENTS
Volume 30, Number 2, January25 2019
 

Abstract
The behavior of a new Three-Tube Buckling-Restrained Brace (TTBRB) with circumference pre-stress (σθ,pre) in core tube are investigated through a verified finite element model. The TTBRB is composed of one core tube and two restraining tubes. The core tube is in the middle to provide the axial stiffness, to carry the axial load and to dissipate the earthquake energy. The two restraining tubes are at inside and outside of the core tube, respectively, to restrain the global and local buckling of the core tube. Based on the yield criteria of fringe fiber, a design method for restraining tubes is proposed. The applicability of the proposed design equations are verified by TTBRBs with different radius-thickness ratios, with different gap widths between core tube and restraining tubs, and with different levels of σθ,pre. The outer and inner tubes will restrain the deformation of the core tube in radius direction, which causes circumference stress (σθ) in the core tube. Together with the σθ,pre in the core tube that is applied through interference fit of the three tubes, the yield strength of the core tube in the axial direction is improved from 160 MPa to 235 MPa. Effects of gap width between the core tube and restraining tubes, and σθ,pre on hysteretic behavior of TTBRBs are presented. Analysis results showed that the gap width and the

Key Words
buckling restrained brace; circumference pre-stress; interference fit; hysteretic behavior; design method

Address
(1) Yang Li, Shaowen Xiao, Peijun Wang, Yang You:
Civil Engineering College of Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong Province, 250061, China;
(2) Haiyan Qu:
Technical Center of Zhongnan Building Industry Group, Nantong, Jiangsu Province, 226100, China;
(3) Shaowen Xiao:
Headquarters of China Vanke Co. Ltd., Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, 510000, China;
(4) Shuqing Hu:
Technical Center of Zhongtong Steel Construction Co., Ltd., Liaocheng, Shandong Province, 252000, China.

Abstract
This paper presents a new model for the strap combined footings to obtain the most economical contact surface on the soil (optimal dimensioning) to support an axial load and moment in two directions to each column. The new model considers the soil real pressure, i.e., the pressure varies linearly. Research presented in this paper shows that can be applied to the T-shaped combined footings and the rectangular combined footings. The classical model uses the technique of test and error, i.e., a dimension is proposed, and subsequently, the equation of the biaxial bending is used to obtain the stresses acting on each vertex of the strap combined footing, which must meet the conditions following: The minimum stress should be equal or greater than zero, and maximum stress must be equal or less than the allowable capacity that can withstand the soil. Numerical examples are presented to obtain the optimal area of the contact surface on the soil for the strap combined footings subjected to an axial load and moments in two directions applied to each column. Appendix shows the Tables 4 and 5 for the strap combined footings, the Table 6 for the T-shaped combined footings, and the Table 7 for the rectangular combined footings.

Key Words
strap combined footings; T-shaped combined footings; rectangular combined footings; optimal dimensioning; contact surface; more economical dimension; minimum area

Address
Institute of Multidisciplinary Researches, Autonomous University of Coahuila, Blvd. Revolución No, 151 Ote, CP 27000, Torreón, Coahuila, México.


Abstract
This paper presents the second part of the modeling for the strap combined footings, this part shows a mathematical model for design of strap combined footings subject to axial load and moments in two directions to each column considering the soil real pressure acting on the contact surface of the footing for one and/or two property lines of sides opposite restricted, the pressure is presented in terms of an axial load, moment around the axis "X" and moment around the axis "Y" to each column, and the methodology is developed using the principle that the derived of the moment is the shear force. The first part shows the optimal contact surface for the strap combined footings to obtain the most economical dimensioning on the soil (optimal area). The classic model considers an axial load and a moment around the axis "X" (transverse axis) applied to each column, i.e., the resultant force from the applied loads is located on the axis "Y" (longitudinal axis), and its position must match with the geometric center of the footing, and when the axial load and moments in two directions are presented, the maximum pressure and uniform applied throughout the contact surface of the footing is considered the same. A numerical example is presented to obtain the design of strap combined footings subject to an axial load and moments in two directions applied to each column. The mathematical approach suggested in this paper produces results that have a tangible accuracy for all problems and it can also be used for rectangular and T-shaped combined footings.

Key Words
mathematical model for design; strap combined footings; moments; bending shear; punching shear

Address
Institute of Multidisciplinary Researches, Autonomous University of Coahuila, Blvd. Revolución No, 151 Ote, CP 27000, Torreón, Coahuila, México.


Abstract
This paper presents experimental study on effects of width-to-thickness ratio and loading history on cyclic rotational capacity of H-shaped steel beams subjected to pure bending. Eight Class 3 and 4 H-shaped beams with large width-to-thickness ratios were tested under four different loading histories. The coupling effect of local buckling and cracking on cyclic rotational capacity of the specimens was investigated. It was found that loss of the load-carrying capacity was mainly induced by local buckling, and ductile cracking was a secondary factor. The width-to-thickness ratio plays a dominant effect on the cyclic rotational capacity, and the loading history also plays an important role. The cyclic rotational capacity can decrease significantly due to premature elasto-plastic local buckling induced by a number of preceding plastic reversals with relative small strain amplitudes. This result is mainly correlated with the decreasing tangent modulus of the structural steel under cyclic plastic loading. In addition, a theoretical approach to evaluate the cyclic rotational capacity of H-shaped beams with different width-to-thickness ratios was also proposed, which compares well with the experimental results.

Key Words
cyclic rotational capacity; local buckling; ductile fracture; pure bending; H-shaped beam; steel

Address
(1) Liang-Jiu Jia:
Department of Disaster Mitigation for Structures, Tongji University, Shanghai, 200092, China;
(2) Yafeng Tian:
Key Laboratory of Civil Engineering Structure and Mechanics, Inner Mongolia University of Technology, Hohhot 010051, China;
(3) Xianzhong Zhao, Siyuan Tian:
Deparment of Structural Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai, 200092, China.

Abstract
Fire is one of the environmental parameters affecting the structure causing element internal forces to change, as well as reducing the strength of the materials. One of the common types of floors in tall steel structures is the steel concrete composite slab. Shear connectors are used in steel and concrete composite beam in various shapes also has played significant role in a burning fire event of building with a steel concrete composite beam. The current study has reviewed the effects of temperature raising on the angle connector behavior through the use of push out tests and monotonic static force. The results have shown (1) the ductility of the samples is acceptable based on EC4 standard; (2) temperature raising has reduced the stiffness; (3) the shear ductility increment; and (4) the shear capacity reduction. Also, the amount of angle shear connector resistance has been decreased from 18.5% to 41% at ambient temperature up to 850°C.

Key Words
composite steel-concrete beams; elevated temperatures; push-out tests; angle shear connectors; load-slip graphs

Address
(1) Seyed Mehdi Davoodnabi, Seyed Mohammad Mirhosseini:
Department of Civil Engineering, Arak Branch, Islamic Azad University, Arak, Iran;
(2) Mahdi Shariati:
Faculty of Civil Engineering, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran.

Abstract
A new form of composite column, concrete-filled round-ended steel tubes (CFRTs), has been proposed as piers or columns in bridges and high-rise building and has great potential to be used in civil engineering. Hence, the objective of this paper presents an experimental and numerical investigation on the flexural behavior of CFRTs through combined experimental results and ABAQUS standard solver. The failure mode was discussed in detail and the specimens all behaved in a very ductile manner. The effect of different parameters, including the steel ratio and aspect ratio, on the flexural behavior of CFRTs was further investigated. Furthermore, the feasibility and accuracy of the numerical method was verified by comparing the FE and experimental results. The moment vs. curvature curves of CFRTs during the loading process were analyzed in detail. The development of the stress and strain distributions in the core concrete and steel tube was investigated based on FE models. The composite action between the core concrete and steel tube was discussed and clarified. In addition, the load transfer mechanism of CFRT under bending was introduced comprehensively. Finally, the predicted ultimate moment according to corresponding designed formula is in good agreement with the experimental results.

Key Words
concrete-filled round-ended steel tube (CFRT); flexural behavior; numerical investigation; composite action; stress redistribution

Address
(1) Fa-xing Ding, Tao Zhang, Liping Wang, Lei Fu:
School of Civil Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410075, PR China;
(2) Fa-xing Ding, Tao Zhang, Liping Wang:
Engineering Technology Research Center for Prefabricated Construction Industrialization of Hunan Province, 410075, P.R. China.


Abstract
As China's infrastructure continues to grow, concrete filled steel tubular (CFST) structures are attracting increasing interest for use in engineering applications in earthquake prone regions owing to their high section modulus, high strength, and good seismic performance. However, in a corrosive environment, the seismic resistance of the CFST columns may be affected to a certain extent. This study attempts to investigate the mechanical behaviours of square CFST members under both a cyclic load and an acid rain attack. First, the tensile mechanical properties of steel plates with various corrosion rates were tested. Second, a total of 12 columns with different corrosion rates were subjected to a reversed cyclic load and tested. Third, comparisons between the test results and the predicted ultimate strength by using four existing codes were carried out. It was found that the corrosion leads to an evident decrease in yield strength, elastic modulus, and tensile strain capacity of steel plates, and also to a noticeable deterioration in the ultimate strength, ductility, and energy dissipation of the CFST members. A larger axial force ratio leads to a more significant resulting deterioration of the seismic behaviour of the columns. In addition, the losses of both thickness and yield strength of an outer steel tube caused by corrosion should be taken into account when predicting the ultimate strength of corroded CFST columns.

Key Words
concrete filled steel tubular (CFST) columns; acid rain attack; experiments; cyclic load; seismic performance

Address
Department of Civil Engineering and Architecture, East China Jiaotong University, Nanchang, 330013, China.


Abstract
Modular construction is an emerging technology to accommodate the increasing restrictions in terms of construction period, energy efficiency and environmental impacts, since each structural module is prefabricated offsite beforehand and assembled onsite using industrialized techniques. However, some innate structural drawbacks of this innovative method are also distinct, such as connection tying inaccessibility, column instability and system robustness. This study aims to explore the theoretical and numerical stability analysis of a tenon-connected square hollow section (SHS) steel column to address the tying and stability issue in modular construction. Due to the excellent performance of composite structures in fire resistance and buckling prevention, concrete-filled steel tube (CFST) columns are also taken into account in the analysis to evaluate the feasibility of adopting composite sections in modular buildings. Characteristic equations with three variables, i.e., the length ratio, the bending stiffness ratio and the rotational stiffness ratio, are generated from the fourth-order governing differential equations. The rotational stiffness ratio is recognized as the most significant factor, with interval analysis conducted for its mechanical significance and domain. Numerical analysis using ABAQUS is conducted for validation of characteristic equations. Recommendations and instructions in predicting the buckling performance of both SHS and CFST columns are then proposed.

Key Words
modular construction; tenon-connected column; square hollow section (SHS); concrete-filled steel tube (CFST); buckling analysis

Address
School of Civil Engineering, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia.



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