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CONTENTS
Volume 8, Number 1, March 2018
 

Abstract
The target area of the proposed study, Mamaia beach, is a narrow stretch of sand barrier island that sits between the Siutghiol Lake and the Black Sea. In the northern part of the bay, is located the Midia Port, where between 1966 and 1971 a long extension of 5 km of the offshore was built. Because of this extension, the natural flow of sediments has been significantly changed. Thus, the southern part of the Mamaia Bay had less sand nourishment which meant that the coast was eroding and to prevent it a protection of six dikes was built. After approximately forty years of coastal erosion, the south of the Mamaia Bay had in 2016 a new protection scheme, which includes first of all the beach nourishment and a new dike structure (groins scheme for protection) to protect it. From this perspective, the objective of the proposed study is to evaluate the effectiveness of the old Master plan against the new one by modeling the outcome of the two scenarios and to perform a comparison with a third one, in which the protection dikes do not exist and only the artificial nourishment has been done. In order to assess the wave processes and the current patterns along the shoreline, a complex computational framework has been applied in the target area. This joins the SWAN spectral phase averaged model with the 1D surf model. Furthermore, new UAV technology was also used to map out, chart and validate the numerical model outputs within the target zone for a better evaluation of the trends expected in the shoreline dynamics.

Key Words
Black Sea; marine environment; wave regime; costal protection; shoreline changes

Address
Dragos M. Niculescu: 1Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Galati \"Dunarea de Jos\", 111 Domneasca Street, Galati, Romania;
Department of Oceanography, National Institute for Marine Research and Development \"Grigore Antipa\", 300 Mamaia Blvd., 900581, Constanța, Romania


Abstract
Due to the escalation in hydrocarbon consumption, the offshore industry is now looking for advanced technology to be employed for deep sea exploration. Riser system is an integral part of floating structure used for such oil and gas extraction from deep water offering a system of drill twines and production tubing to spread the exploration well towards the ocean bed. Thus, the marine risers need to be precisely employed. The incorporation of the strengthening material, fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) for deep and ultra-deep water riser has drawn extensive curiosity in offshore engineering as it might offer potential weight savings and improved durability. The design for FRP strengthening involves the local design for critical loads along with the global analysis under all possible nonlinearities and imposed loadings such as platform motion, gravity, buoyancy, wave force, hydrostatic pressure, current etc. for computing and evaluating critical situations. Finite element package, ABAQUS/AQUA is the competent tool to analyze the static and dynamic responses under the offshore hydrodynamic loads. The necessities in design and operating conditions are studied. The study includes describing the methodology, procedure of analysis and the local design of composite riser. The responses and fatigue damage characteristics of the risers are explored for the effects of FRP strengthening. A detail assessment on the technical expansion of strengthening riser has been outlined comprising the inquiry on its behavior. The enquiry exemplifies the strengthening of riser as very potential idea and suitable in marine structures to explore oil and gas in deep sea.

Key Words
marine riser; FRP strengthening; fatigue damage; finite element modeling; nonlinear analysis; dynamic response

Address
A.B.M. Saiful Islam: Department of Civil & Construction Engineering, College of Engineering,Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam 31451, Saudi Arabia


Abstract
The paper presents a numerical underwater channel model developed in MATLAB for estimating the optical link budget between a light emitting diode (LED) based optical transmitter and a photo diode (PD) receiver when operated in the harbor, coastal and deep waters locations in the Bay of Bengal. The water samples are collected at different locations in the Bay of Bengal using a water sampler during an offshore research cruise. The optical attenuation, the main inherent parameter determining the range of the optical communication link is identified for the different waters using an underwater irradiance measurement system in the laboratory. The identified parameters are applied to the numerical model and found that a 10 W LED and a photo diode based system can provide the optical budget required for a horizontal underwater communication range of about 0.5, 14 and 35 m in the harbor, coastal and deep waters locations respectively. By increasing the transmitter power to 50 W, the operating range of the communication link could be increased up to 53 m in deep water locations in the Bay of Bengal.

Key Words
optical; underwater; wireless communication

Address
V. Sathyaram: SRM University Kattankulathur, Chennai 603203, India
Shanthi Prince: Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, SRM University, Kattankulathur, Chennai 603203, India
N. Vedachalam: National Institute of Ocean Technology, Ministry of Earth Sciences, Chennai 600100, India


Abstract
Accidental oil and gas leak is a critical concern for the offshore industry because it can lead to severe consequences and as a result, it is imperative to evaluate the probabilities of occurrence of the consequences of the leakage in order to assess the risk. Event Tree Analysis (ETA) is a technique to identify the consequences that can result from the occurrence of a hazardous event. The probability of occurrence of the consequences is evaluated by the ETA, based on the failure probabilities of the sequential events. Conventional ETA deals with events with crisp failure probabilities. In offshore applications, it is often difficult to arrive at a single probability measure due to lack of data or imprecision in data. In such a scenario, fuzzy set theory can be applied to handle imprecision and data uncertainty. This paper presents fuzzy ETA (FETA) methodology to compute the probability of the outcomes initiated due to oil/gas leak in an actual offshore-onshore installation. Post FETA, sensitivity analysis by Fuzzy Weighted Index (FWI) method is performed to find the event that has the maximum contribution to the severe sequences. It is found that events of \'ignition\', spreading of fire to \'equipment\' and \'other areas\' are the highest contributors to the severe consequences, followed by failure of \'leak detection\' and \'fire detection\' and \'fire water not being effective\'. It is also found that the frequency of severe consequences that are catastrophic in nature obtained by ETA is one order less than that obtained by FETA, thereby implying that in ETA, the uncertainty does not propagate through the event tree. The ranking of severe sequences based on their probability, however, are identical in both ETA and FETA.

Key Words
oil and gas leakage; event tree analysis; fuzzy weighted index

Address
A.S. Cheliyan and S.K. Bhattacharyya: Department of Ocean Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, India

Abstract
The present paper deals with the finite element analysis of water tanks with rigid baffle. Fluid is discretized by two dimensional eight-node isoparametric elements and the governing equation is simulated by pressure based formulation to reduce the degrees of freedom in the domain. Both free vibration and force vibration analysis are carried out for different sizes and positions of block at tank bottom. The fundamental frequency depends on block height and it reduces with the increase of block height. The variation of hydrodynamic pressure on tank walls not only depends of the exciting frequency but also on the size and position of rigid block at tank bottom. The hydrodynamic pressure has higher value when the exciting frequency is equal and lower than the fundamental frequency of the water in the tank. Similarly, the hydrodynamic pressure increases with the increase of width of the block for all exciting frequencies when the block is at the centre of tank. The left and right walls of tank have experienced different hydrodynamic pressure when the block is placed at off-centre. However, the increase in hydrodynamic pressure on nearest tank wall becomes insignificant after a certain value of the distance between the wall and the rigid block.

Key Words
finite element analysis; rigid block; fundamental frequency; rigid surface; time history analysis

Address
Ranjan Adhikary and Kalyan Kumar Mandal: Department of Civil Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata, India

Abstract
The effects of BPC (blade pitch control) on FOWT (floating offshore wind turbine) motions and generated power are investigated by using a fully-coupled turbine-floater-mooring simulation program. In this regard, two example FOWTs, OC4-5MW semi-submersible FOWT and KRISO four-3MW-units FOWT, are selected since the numerical simulations of those two FOWTs have been verified against experiments in authors\' previous studies. Various simulations are performed changing BPC natural frequency (BPCNF), BPC damping ratio (BPCDR), and wind speeds. Through the numerical simulations, it was demonstrated that negative damping can happen for platform pitch motions and its influences are affected by BPCNF, BPCDR, and wind speeds. If BPCNF is significantly larger than platform-pitch natural frequency, the pitch resonance can be very serious due to the BPC-induced negative-damping effects, which should be avoided in the FOWT design. If wind speed is significantly higher than the rated wind velocity, the negative damping effects start to become reduced. Other important findings are also given through systematic sensitivity investigations.

Key Words
FOWT (floating offshore wind turbine); BPC (blade pitch control); BPCNF; BPCDR; negative pitch damping; wind speed; generated power; thrust; fully-coupled turbine-floater-mooring simulation

Address
H.C. Kim and M.H. Kim: Texas A&M University, Dept. Ocean Engineering, College Station, TX 77843, USA


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