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Volume 8, Number 1, March 2018

The target area of the proposed study, Mamaia beach, is a narrow stretch of sand barrier island that sits between the Siutghiol Lake and the Black Sea. In the northern part of the bay, is located the Midia Port, where between 1966 and 1971 a long extension of 5 km of the offshore was built. Because of this extension, the natural flow of sediments has been significantly changed. Thus, the southern part of the Mamaia Bay had less sand nourishment which meant that the coast was eroding and to prevent it a protection of six dikes was built. After approximately forty years of coastal erosion, the south of the Mamaia Bay had in 2016 a new protection scheme, which includes first of all the beach nourishment and a new dike structure (groins scheme for protection) to protect it. From this perspective, the objective of the proposed study is to evaluate the effectiveness of the old Master plan against the new one by modeling the outcome of the two scenarios and to perform a comparison with a third one, in which the protection dikes do not exist and only the artificial nourishment has been done. In order to assess the wave processes and the current patterns along the shoreline, a complex computational framework has been applied in the target area. This joins the SWAN spectral phase averaged model with the 1D surf model. Furthermore, new UAV technology was also used to map out, chart and validate the numerical model outputs within the target zone for a better evaluation of the trends expected in the shoreline dynamics.

Key Words
Black Sea; marine environment; wave regime; costal protection; shoreline changes

Dragos M. Niculescu: 1Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Galati \"Dunarea de Jos\", 111 Domneasca Street, Galati, Romania;
Department of Oceanography, National Institute for Marine Research and Development \"Grigore Antipa\", 300 Mamaia Blvd., 900581, Constanța, Romania

Due to the escalation in hydrocarbon consumption, the offshore industry is now looking for advanced technology to be employed for deep sea exploration. Riser system is an integral part of floating structure used for such oil and gas extraction from deep water offering a system of drill twines and production tubing to spread the exploration well towards the ocean bed. Thus, the marine risers need to be precisely employed. The incorporation of the strengthening material, fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) for deep and ultra-deep water riser has drawn extensive curiosity in offshore engineering as it might offer potential weight savings and improved durability. The design for FRP strengthening involves the local design for critical loads along with the global analysis under all possible nonlinearities and imposed loadings such as platform motion, gravity, buoyancy, wave force, hydrostatic pressure, current etc. for computing and evaluating critical situations. Finite element package, ABAQUS/AQUA is the competent tool to analyze the static and dynamic responses under the offshore hydrodynamic loads. The necessities in design and operating conditions are studied. The study includes describing the methodology, procedure of analysis and the local design of composite riser. The responses and fatigue damage characteristics of the risers are explored for the effects of FRP strengthening. A detail assessment on the technical expansion of strengthening riser has been outlined comprising the inquiry on its behavior. The enquiry exemplifies the strengthening of riser as very potential idea and suitable in marine structures to explore oil and gas in deep sea.

Key Words
marine riser; FRP strengthening; fatigue damage; finite element modeling; nonlinear analysis; dynamic response

A.B.M. Saiful Islam: Department of Civil & Construction Engineering, College of Engineering,Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam 31451, Saudi Arabia

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