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CONTENTS
Volume 10, Number 1, January 2019
 

Abstract
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) predicted that recent extreme hydrological events would affect water quality and aggravate various forms of water pollution. To analyze changes in water quality due to future climate change, input data (precipitation, average temperature, relative humidity, average wind speed and sunlight) were established using the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) 8.5 climate change scenario suggested by the AR5 and calculated the future runoff for each target period (Reference:1989-2015; I: 2016-2040; II: 2041-2070; and III: 2071-2099) using the semi-distributed land use-based runoff processes (SLURP) model. Meteorological factors that affect water quality (precipitation, temperature and runoff) were inputted into the multiple linear regression analysis (MLRA) and artificial neural network (ANN) models to analyze water quality data, dissolved oxygen (DO), biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), suspended solids (SS), total nitrogen (T-N) and total phosphorus (T-P). Future water quality prediction of the Anseongcheon River basin shows that DO at Gongdo station in the river will drop by 35% in autumn by the end of the 21st century and that BOD, COD and SS will increase by 36%, 20% and 42%, respectively. Analysis revealed that the oxygen demand at Dongyeongyo station will decrease by 17% in summer and BOD, COD and SS will increase by 30%, 12% and 17%, respectively. This study suggests that there is a need to continuously monitor the water quality of the Anseongcheon River basin for long-term management. A more reliable prediction of future water quality will be achieved if various social scenarios and climate data are taken into consideration.

Key Words
climate change; multiple linear regression analysis; artificial neural network; water quality prediction

Address
Civil Engineering Department, Inha University, 100, Inha-ro, Michuhol-gu, Incheon City, South Korea

Abstract
This study was conducted to analyse the application of pollutant build-up model on various urban landuses and to characterize pollutant build-up on urban areas as a source of stormwater runoff pollution. The monitored data from impervious surfaces in urban areas such as commercial (8 sites), industrial (10 sites), road (8 sites), residential (10 sites), recreational (5 sites) from 2008 to 2016 were used for the analysis of pollutant build-up model. Based on the results, the average runoff coefficients vary from 0.35 to 0.61. In all landuses except recreational landuse, the runoff coefficient is 0.5 or more, which is the highest in the commercial area. Commercial landuse where pollutants occur at the highest EMC in all landuse, and it is considered that NPS management is necessary compared with other landuses. The maximum build-up load for organic matter (BOD) was highest in the commercial area (4.59 g/m2), and for particular matter (TSS) in the road area (5.90 g/m2) while for nutrient (TN and TP) in the residential area (0.40 g/m2, 0.14 g/m2). The rate constants ranged from 0.1 to 1.3 1/day depending on landuse and pollutant parameters, which means that pollutant accumulation occurs between 1 and 10 days during dry day. It is clear that these build-up curves can generally be classified based on landuse. Antecedent dry day (ADD) is a suitable and reasonable variable for developing pollutant build-up functions. The pollutant build-up curves for different landuse shows that these build-up curves can be generally categorized based on landuse.

Key Words
Antecedent dry day (ADD); build-up; nonpoint source; stormwater runoff; urban

Address
Water Environment Research Department, National Institute of Environmental Research, Hwangyeong-ro 42,
Seo-gu, Incheon, 22689, Republic of Korea

Abstract
To minimize the impact of urbanization, accurate performance evaluation of Low Impact Development (LID) facilities is needed. In Korea, the method designed to evaluate large-scale non-point pollution reduction facilities is being applied to LID facilities. However, it has been pointed out that this method is not suitable for evaluating the performance of relatively small-scale installed LID facilities. In this study, a new design formula was proposed based on the ratio of LID facility area and contributing drainage area, for estimating the Stormwater Interception Ratio (SIR) for LID facilities. The SIR was estimated for bio-retentions, infiltration trenches and vegetative swales, which are typical LID facilities, under various conditions through long-term stormwater simulation using the LID module of EPA SWMM. Based on the results of these numerical experiments, the new SIR formula for each LID facility was derived. The sensitivity of the proposed SIR formula to local rainfall properties and design variables is analysed. In addition, the SIR formula was compared with the existing design formula, the Rainfall Interception Ratio (RIR).

Key Words
EPA SWMM; low impact development; stormwater interception ratio

Address
Jeonghyeon Choi, Okjeong Lee: Division of Earth Environmental System Science (Major in Environmental Engineering), Pukyong National University, 45 Yongso-ro, Nam-gu, Busan 48513, Republic of Korea
Jeonghoon Lee: nstitute of Environmental Research, Pukyong National University, 45 Yongso-ro, Nam-gu, Busan 48513, Republic of Korea
Sangdan Kim: Department of Environmental Engineering, Pukyong National University, 45 Yongso-ro, Nam-gu, Busan 48513, Republic of Korea

Abstract
Microbial community and composition in stormwater runoff from mixed land use land cover (LULC) catchment with ongoing land development was diverse across the hydrological stage due different environmental parameters (hydrometeorological and physicochemical) and source of runoff. However, limited studies have been made for bacterial composition in this catchment. Therefore, this study aims to: (1) quantify the concentration of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), stormwater quality and bacterial composition and structure according to hydrological stage; and (2) determine their correlation to environmental parameters. The 454 pyrosequencing was used to determine the bacterial community and composition; while Pearson\'s correlation was used to determine the correlation among parameters—FIB, stormwater quality, bacterial composition and structure-to environmental parameters. Results demonstrated that the initial and peak runoff has the highest concentration of FIB, stormwater quality and bacterial composition and structure. Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria and Firmicutes were dominant bacteria identified in this catchment. Furthermore, the 20 most abundant genera were correlated with runoff duration, average rainfall intensity, runoff volume, runoff flow, temperature, pH, organic matter, nutrients, TSS and turbidity. An increase of FIB and stormwater quality concentration, diversity and richness of bacterial composition and structure in this study was possibly due to leakage from septic tanks, cesspools and latrines; feces of domestic and wild animals; and runoff from forest, destroyed septic system in land development site and urban LULC. Overall, this study will provide an evidence of hydrological stage impacts on the runoff microbiome environment and public health perspective.

Key Words
bacterial community; catchment; fecal indicator bacteria; land use and land cover; stormwater runoff

Address
Department of Environmental Engineering and Energy, Myongji University, 116 Myongji-ro, Cheoin-gu,
Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 17058, Republic of Korea

Abstract
LID facilities do not consider environmental factors, and due to inappropriate vegetation planting causing degradation in efficiency due to plant damage and difficulty in maintenance. Therefore, in this study, assessment of impact environmental factor by seasonal variation of chlorophyll and growth of vegetation planted in LID technologies and change of pollutant reduction were conducted. In the case of B-SJ and B-RI, growth rate decreased after summer (August), and B-MG showed steady growth until autumn (September). Chlorophyll was found to increase during spring season while it decreased during autumn season. The chlorophyll concentration was found to affect the plant growth pattern. TN reduction efficiency was highest with greater than 80% efficiency in summer, and it was analyzed that plants were identified as the main factor affecting the seasonal reduction efficiency of TN. Also, temperature and relative humidity were analyzed to affect plant growth, activity and pollutant removal efficiency. Plant type and growth pattern are considered as factors to be considered in selection of appropriate plant types in LID technologies.

Key Words
clorophyll; growth; low impact development; meteorological characteristics; vegetation

Address
Dept. of Civil & Environ. Engineering, Kongju National University, 1223-24, Cheonan-daero, Seobuk-gu, Cheonan,
Chungnamdo, 31080, Republic of Korea

Abstract
Climate change has significantly affected the rainfall characteristics which can influence the pollutant build-up and wash-off patterns from the catchment. Therefore, this study explored the influence of varying rainfall characteristics on urban and agricultural runoff pollutant export using statistical approaches. For this purpose, Mann-Kendall and Pettitt\'s test were applied to detect the trend and breakpoint in rainfall characteristics time series. In addition, double mass curve and correlation analysis were used to drive the relationship between rainfall-runoff and pollutant exports from both catchments. The results indicate a significant decreased in total rainfall and average rainfall intensity, while a significant increased trend for antecedents dry days and total storm duration over the study periods. The breakpoint was determined to be 2013 which shows remarkable trend shifts for total rainfall, average rainfall intensity and antecedents dry days except total duration. Double mass curve exhibited a straight line with significant rainfall-runoff relationship indicates a climate change effect on both sites. Overall, higher pollutant exports were observed at both sites during the baseline period as compared to change periods. In agricultural site, most of the pollutants exhibited significant (p< 0.05) association with total rainfall, average rainfall intensity and total storm duration. In contrast, pollutants from urban site significantly correlated with antecedent dry days and average rainfall intensity. Thus, total rainfall, average rainfall intensity and total duration were the significant factors for the agricultural catchment while, antecedents dry days and average rainfall intensity were key factors in build-up and wash-off from the urban catchment.

Key Words
change point; climate change; Mann-Kendall; rainfall-runoff; rainfall trend; stormwater runoff

Address
Imran Salim, Ma. Cristina Paule-Mercado, Bum-Yeon Lee and Chang-Hee Lee:Department of Environmental Engineering and Energy, Myongji University, 116 Myongji-ro, Cheoin-gu, Yongin, Gyeonggi-do,17058, Korea
Raja Umer Sajjad: Department of Environmental Science, COMSATS University Islamabad, Abbottabad Campus, 22060, Pakistan
Sheeraz Ahmed Memon: Institute of Environmental Engineering and Management, Mehran University of Engineering and Technology, Jamshoro, 76062, Sindh, Pakistan
Chinzorig Sukhbaatar: Institute of Geography and Geoecology, Baruun Selbe - 15, 4th Khoroo, Chingiltei Ulaanbaatar-15170, Mongolia

Abstract
This study assessed the contribution of emergent vegetation (Phragmites australis, Typha latifolia, and Nelumbo nucifera) to the submerged surface area, the amount of biofilms attached to the submerged portions of the plants, and the treatment performance of a free water surface (FWS) constructed wetland. Results showed that a 1% increase (31 m2) in the vegetative area resulted in an increase of 220 m2 of submerged surface area, and 0.48 kg Volatile Suspended Solids (VSS) of attached biofilm. As the vegetation coverage increased, effluent organic matter and total Kjeldahl nitrogen decreased. Conversely, a higher nitrate concentration was found in the effluent as a result of increased nitrification and incomplete denitrification, which was limited by the availability of a carbon source. In addition, a larger vegetation coverage resulted in a higher phosphorus in the effluent, most likely released from senescent biofilms and sediments, which resulted from the partial suppression of algal growth. Based on the results, it was recommended that constructed wetlands should be operated with a vegetation coverage of just under 50% to maximize pollutant removal.

Key Words
biofilm; emergent plant; free water surface wetland; submerged surface area; treatment performance; vegetation coverage

Address
Ruijun Zhao,Yaoping Chen: School of Earth and Environment, Anhui University of Science & Technology, Huainan City, 232001, China
Qingke Yuan,Youngchul Kim: Department of Environmental Engineering, Hanseo University, Seosan City, Chungnam, 356-706, Korea
Jing Cheng: Department of Resource and Environment, Anhui Science and Technology University, Chuzhou City, 233100, China

Abstract
Apparent changes in the natural hydrologic cycle causing more frequent floods in urban areas and surface water quality impairment have led stormwater management solutions towards the use of green and sustainable practices that aims to replicate pre-urbanization hydrology. Among the widely documented applications are infiltration techniques that temporarily store rainfall runoff while promoting evapotranspiration, groundwater recharge through infiltration, and diffuse pollutant reduction. In this study, a laboratory-scale infiltration device was built to be able to observe and determine the factors affecting flow variations and corresponding solids removal through a series of experiments employing semi-synthetic stormwater runoff. Results reveal that runoff and solids reduction is greatly influenced by the infiltration capability of the underlying soil which is also affected by rainfall intensity and the available depth for water storage. For gravel-filled structures, a depth of at least 1 m and subsoil infiltration rates of not more than 200 mm/h are suggested for optimum volume reduction and pollutant removal. Moreover, it was found that the length of the structure is more critical than the depth for applications in low infiltration soils. These findings provide a contribution to existing guidelines and current understanding in design and applicability of infiltration systems.

Key Words
stormwater runoff; infiltration; design; subsoil; low-impact development

Address
Department of Environmental Engineering, Hanseo University,
46 Hanseo 1-ro, Haemi-myun, Seosan-si, Chungcheongnam-do 356-706, Republic of Korea

Abstract
In a highly urbanized area, land availability is limited for the installation of space consuming stormwater systems for best management practices (BMPs), leading to the consideration of underground stormwater treatment devices connected to the stormwater pipe system. The configuration of a stormwater pipe network determines the hydrological and pollutant transport characteristics of the stormwater discharged through the pipe network, and thus should be an important design consideration for effective management of stormwater quantity and quality. This article presents a multi-objective optimization approach for designing a stormwater pipe network with on-line stormwater treatment devices to achieve an optimal trade-off between the total installation cost and the annual removal efficiency of total suspended solids (TSS). The Non-dominated Sorted Genetic Algorithm-II (NSGA-II) was adapted to solve the multi-objective optimization problem. The study site used to demonstrate the developed approach was a commercial area that has an existing pipe network with eight outfalls into an adjacent stream in Yongin City, South Korea. The stormwater management model (SWMM) was calibrated based on the data obtained from a subcatchment within the study area and was further used to simulate the flow rates and TSS discharge rates through a given pipe network for the entire study area. In the simulation, an underground stormwater treatment device was assumed to be installed at each outfall and sized proportional to the average flow rate at the outfall. The total installation cost for the pipes and underground devices was estimated based on empirical formulas using the flow rates and TSS discharge rates simulated by the SWMM. In the demonstration example, the installation cost could be reduced by up to 9% while the annual TSS removal efficiency could be increased by 4% compared to the original pipe network configuration. The annual TSS removal efficiency was relatively insensitive to the total installation cost in the Pareto-optimal solutions of the pipe network design. The results suggested that the installation cost of the pipes and stormwater treatment devices can be substantially reduced without significantly compromising the pollutant removal efficiency when the pipe network is optimally designed.

Key Words
multi-objective optimization, NSGA-II, SWMM, stormwater treatments, pipe network, ultra-urban area

Address
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Dongguk University-Seoul, 30, Pildong-ro 1 gil, Jung-gu, Seoul 04620, Republic of Korea

Abstract
The most common way of reducing non-point source pollutants from agricultural areas is the installation of reservoirs. However, this method is only effective for surface runoff of settleable pollutants. This study was conducted to estimate the effect of interflow, baseflow, and surface runoff on pollutant runoff in a small agricultural catchment. Runoff of organic matters, SS, and T-P were directly proportional to the rainfall variation, while ammonia and nitrate were inversely proportional to the amount of rainfall. The interflow and baseflow was only 46% of the total stream flow, but the nitrate load reached 78%. The interflow as a nutrient transport pathway should be considered for managing a stream water quality. It requires careful attention and appropriate control methodology such as vegetation to consider the influence by interflow. The reservoir as a dry extended detention pond (DEDP) has function of nutrient captor.

Key Words
baseflow; surface runoff; interflow; livestock manure; non-point source

Address
Yunhee Lee: Daejeon Sejong Research Institute, 85 Jungang-ro, Jung-gu, Daejeon 34863, Republic of Korea
Seong-Wook Oa: Department of Railroad Civil System, Woosong University, 171 Dongdaejeon-ro, Dong-gu, Daejeon 34606, Republic of Korea

Abstract
Application of bioretention systems in Korea is highly considered due to its minimal space requirements, appropriateness as small landscape areas and good pollutant removal and peak hydraulic flow reduction efficiency. In this study, the efficiency of two lab-scale bioretention types having different physical properties, media configuration and planted with different shrubs and perennials was investigated in reducing heavy metal pollutants in stormwater runoff. Type A bioretention systems were planted with shrubs whereas type B were planted with perennials. Chrysanthemum zawadskii var. latilobum (A-CL) and Aquilegia flabellata var. pumila (A-AP) respectively were planted in each type A bioretention reactors while Rhododendron indicum linnaeus (B-RL) and Spiraea japonica (B-SJ), respectively were planted in each type B bioretention reactors. Results revealed that the four lab-scale bioretention reactors significantly reduced the influent total suspended load by about 89 to 94% (p<0.01). Type B-RL and B-SJ reactors reduced soluble Cr, Cu, Zn, and Pb by 28 to 45% that were 15 to 35% greater than the soluble metal reduction of type A-CL and A-AP reactors, respectively. Among the pollutants, total Cr attained the greatest discharged fraction of 0.52-0.81. Excluding the effect of soil media, total Pb attained the greatest retention fraction in the bioretention systems amounting to 0.15-0.34. Considering the least discharge fraction of heavy metal in the bioretention system, it was observed that the bioretention systems achieved effectual reduction in terms of total Cu, Zn and Pb. These findings were associated with the poor adsorption capacity of the soil used in each bioretention system. The results of this study may be used for estimating the maintenance requirements of bioretention systems.

Key Words
bioretention; heavy metal; low impact development; nature-based solution; stormwater management

Address
Franz Kevin F. Geronimo, Jungsun Hong and Lee-Hyung Kim: Department of Civil and Environment Engineering, Kongju National University, 1223-24 Cheonan-daero,
Seobukgu, Cheonan city, Chungnam province, South Korea, 31080
Marla C. Maniquiz-Redillas: Civil Engineering Department., 2401 Taft Avenue, De La Salle University-Manila, Malate Manila, Philippines

Abstract
In Korea, nonpoint pollutants have a significant effect on rivers\' water quality, and they are discharged in very different ways depending on rainfall events. Therefore, preparing an optimal countermeasure against nonpoint pollutants requires much monitoring. The present study was conducted to help prepare a method for installing an automatic nonpoint pollutant measurement system for the cost-effective monitoring of the effect of nonpoint pollutants on rivers. In the present study, monitoring was performed at six sites of a river passing through an urban area with a basin area of 454.3 km2. The results showed that monitoring could be performed for a relatively long time interval in the upstream and downstream regions, which are mainly comprised of forests, regardless of the rainfall amount. On the contrary, in the urban region, the monitoring had to be performed at a relatively short time interval each time when the rainfall intensity changed. This was because the flow rate was significantly dependent on the rainfall\'s intensity. The appropriate sites for installing an automatic measurement system were found to be a site before entering the urban region, a site after passing through the urban region, and the end of a river where the effects of nonpoint pollutant sources can be well-decided. The analysis also showed that the monitoring time should be longer for the rainfall events of a higher rainfall class and for the sites closer to the river end. This is because the rainfall runoff has a longer effect on the river. However, the effect of nonpoint pollutant sources was not significantly different between the upstream and the downstream in the cases of rainfall events over 100 mm.

Key Words
automatic measurement system; cost-effective monitoring; nonpoint pollutant source; peak discharge

Address
Jechan Jeon, Dongseok Shin: Water Environment Research Department, National Institute of Environmental Research,
42 Hwankyungro, Seogu, Incheon Metropolitan City, 22689, South Korea
Hyeseon Choi and Lee-hyung Kim: Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Kongju National University, 275 Budaedong, Seobukgu,
Cheonan, Chungnamdo, 331-717, South Korea


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