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CONTENTS
Volume 6, Number 1, March 2019
 

Abstract
The objective of the study is to examine the relationship between water resources, energy demand, food production, and environmental pollutants in selected SAARC nations, namely, Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka, during the period of 1990-2016. The results show that water, energy, and food (WEF) resources substantially affected air quality in the form of high mass carbon emissions, fossil fuel energy demand, methane discharges, nitrous oxide emissions, and greenhouse gas emissions in these countries. Food production and food deficit largely increase CO2 emissions due to unsustainable production and malnutrition, while land use under cereal production increases CH4 and N2O emissions. Electricity production escalates CO2 emissions and fossil emissions across countries. The results support the carbon EKC hypothesis, while monotonic increasing function exists in case of fossil fuel energy. The study emphasizes the need to ensure environmental sustainability agenda by adopting cleaner production technologies in WEF resources.

Key Words
CO2 emission; energy and environment; energy efficiency; energy management; Sustainability and life cycle assessments

Address
Abdul Mansoor, Baserat Sultana and Khalid Zaman: Department of Economics, University of Wah, Wah Cantt 47040, Pakistan

Saima Shafique: Department of Economics, National University of Modern Languages, Islamabad 44010, Pakistan

Abstract
This study aimed to observe trends in the literature on research, development, and innovation management in the energy sector, using performance assessment systems. The paper presented a bibliometric analysis of 40 studies on the subject. These materials come from ScienceDirect, Scopus and the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) databases from 2006 to 2016. The results showed an increasing trend in the number of publications on the theme, showing the scientific community\'s interest in the subject. In addition, it was verified that the predominant language used to write the publications was English, the country that most published articles in the area was Brazil and most of the articles were produced through collaboration between researchers. It was found that the journal with the greatest number of publications on the subject was the Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, while the Expert Systems with Applications journal presented the article with the greatest number of citations. This analysis allowed us to identify important points of the research and its future directions, in addition to enabling a better understanding of the world trend of the subject approached.

Key Words
bibliometric analysis; research, development and innovation; management; performance assessment; triple helix; energy

Address
Taís B. Garlet: Department of Production Engineering, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Osvaldo Aranha Avenue, No. 99, 5th floor, ZIP code: 90035-190, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

Fernando S. Savian, Mariana S. Minuzzi and Julio C. M. Siluk: Department of Production Engineering, Federal University of Santa Maria, Roraima Avenue, No. 1000, Building 7, Room No. 300, ZIP code: 97105-900, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

Abstract
A successful blade design must satisfy some criterions which might be in conflict with maximizing annual energy yield for a specified wind speed distribution. These criterions include maximizing power output, more resistance to fatigue loads, reduction of tip deflection, avoid resonance and minimize weight and cost. These criterions can be satisfied by modifying the geometrical parameters of the blade. This study is dedicated to the aerodynamic assessment of a 20 kW horizontal axis wind turbine operating with two possible airfoils; that is Göttingen 413 and NACA 2415 airfoils (the Gottingen airfoil never been used in wind turbines). For this study parameters such as chord (constant, tapered and elliptic), twist angle (constant and linear) are varied and applied to the two airfoils independently in order to determine the most adequate blade configuration that produce the highest annual energy output. A home built numerical code based on the Blade Element Momentum (BEM) method with both Prandtl tip loss correction and Glauert correction, X-Foil and Weibull distribution is developed in Matlab and validated against available numerical and experimental data. The results of the assessment showed that the NACA 2415 airfoil section with elliptic chord and constant twist angle distributions produced the highest annual energy production.

Key Words
small wind turbine; blade element momentum; chord distribution; twist angle distribution; horizontal axis wind turbine; annual energy production

Address
Willian M. Okita and Kamal A. R. Ismail:Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Energy Department, State University of Campinas, Mendeleiev street, 200, Cidade Universitária \"Zeferino Vaz\", 13083-860, Barão Geraldo, Campinas, Brazil

Abstract
The cost incurred by voltage sag effect in power networks has always been of important concern for discussions. Due to the environmental constraints, fossil fuel shortage crisis and low efficiency of conventional power plants, decentralized generation and renewable based DG have become trends in recent decades; because DGs can reduce the voltage sag effect in distribution networks noticeably; therefore, optimum allocation of DGs in order to maximize their effectiveness is highly important in order to maximize their effectiveness. In this paper, a new method is proposed for calculating the cost incurred by voltage sag effect in power networks. Thus, a new objective function is provided that comprehends technical standards as minimization of the cost incurred by voltage sag effect, active power losses and economic criterion as the installation and maintenance costs of DGs. Considering operational constraints of the system, the optimum allocation of DGs is a constrained optimization problem in which Lightning Attachment procedure optimization (LAPO) is used to resolve it and is the optimum number, size and location of DGs are determined in IEEE 33 bus test system and IEEE 34 bus test system. The results show that optimum allocation of DGs not only reduces the cost incurred by voltage sag effect, but also improves the other characteristics of the system.

Key Words
distributed generation (DG); voltage sag; lightning attachment procedure optimization (LAPO); expected sag frequency (ESF); exposure length

Address
Pejman Hashemian, Amin Foroughi Nematollahi and Behrooz Vahidi: Department of Electrical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, 1591634311, Iran

Abstract
Anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions are rising rapidly despite efforts to curb release of such gases. One long term potential solution to offset these destructive emissions is the capture and storage of carbon dioxide. Partially depleted hydrocarbon reservoirs are attractive targets for permanent carbon dioxide disposal due to proven storage capacity and seal integrity, existing infrastructure. Optimum well completion design in depleted reservoirs requires understanding of prominent geomechanics issues with regard to rock-fluid interaction effects. Geomechanics plays a crucial role in the selection, design and operation of a storage facility and can improve the engineering performance, maintain safety and minimize environmental impact. In this paper, an integrated geomechanics workflow to evaluate reservoir caprock integrity is presented. This method integrates a reservoir simulation that typically computes variation in the reservoir pressure and temperature with geomechanical simulation which calculates variation in stresses. Coupling between these simulation modules is performed iteratively which in each simulation cycle, time dependent reservoir pressure and temperature obtained from three dimensional compositional reservoir models in ECLIPSE were transferred into finite element reservoir geomechanical models in ABAQUS and new porosity and permeability are obtained using volumetric strains for the next analysis step. Finally, efficiency of this approach is demonstrated through a case study of oil production and subsequent carbon storage in an oil reservoir. The methodology and overall workflow presented in this paper are expected to assist engineers with geomechanical assessments for reservoir optimum production and gas injection design for both natural gas and carbon dioxide storage in depleted reservoirs.

Key Words
permanent disposal; seal integrity; geomechanics; caprock integrity; stress; coupling

Address
Roohollah Taghizadeh and Kaveh Ahangari: Department of Mining Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

Kamran Goshtasbi: Department of Mining Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran

Abbas Khaksar Manshad: Department of Petroleum Engineering, Faculty of Petroleum Engineering, Petroleum University of Technology, Abadan, Iran



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