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CONTENTS
Volume 23, Number 5, November 2022
 


Abstract
Reinforced concrete (RC) structures with low-strength RC columns are rampant in several countries, especially those constructed during the early 1960s and 1970s. The weakness of these structures due to overloading or some natural disasters such as earthquakes and building age effects are some of the main reasons to collapse, particularly with the scarcity of data on the impact of aspect ratio and corner radius on the confinement effectiveness. Hence, it is crucial to investigate if these columns (with different aspect ratios) can be made safe by strengthening them with carbon fiber-reinforced polymers (CFRP) sheets. Therefore, experimental and numerical studies of CFRP-strengthened low-strength reinforced concrete short rectangular, square, and circular columns were studied. In this investigation, a total of 6 columns divided into three sets were evaluated. The first set had two circular cross-sectional columns, the second set had two square cross-section columns, and the third set has two rectangular cross-section columns. Furthermore, FEM validation has been conducted for some of the experimental results obtained from the literature. The experimental results revealed that the confinement equations for RC columns as per both CSA and ACI codes could give incorrect results for low-strength concrete. The control specimen (unstrengthened ones) displayed that both ACI and CSA equations overestimate the ultimate strength of low-strength RC columns by order of extent. For strengthened columns with CFRP, the code equations of CSA and ACI code overestimate the maximum strength by around 6 to 13% and 23 to 29%, respectively, depending on the cross-section of the column (i.e., square, rectangular, or circular). Results of finite element models (FEMs) showed that increasing the layer number of new commonly CFRP type (B) from one to 3 for circular columns can increase the columnthe column's ultimate loads by around eight times compared to unjacketed columns. However, in the case of strengthened square and rectangular columns with CFRP, the increase of the ultimate loads of columns can reach up to six times and two times, respectively.

Key Words
columns; CFRP; finite element modeling; low strength concrete; strengthen

Address
Khaled A. Alawi Al-Sodani: Department of Civil Engineering, University of Hafr Al-Batin, Hafr Al-Batin 39524, Saudi Arabia
Muhammad Kalimur Rahman, Mohammed A. Al-Osta and Omar S. Baghabra Al-Amoudi: Interdisciplinary Research Center for Construction and Building Materials, KFUPM, Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia
Mohammed A. Al-Osta and Omar S. Baghabra Al-Amoudi: Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, KFUPM, Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia

Abstract
The metallic energy dissipation device (EDD) has been widely accepted as a useful tool for passive control of buildings against earthquakes. The distribution of metallic EDDs in a multi-story building may have significant influence on its seismic performance, which can be greatly enhanced if the distribution scheme is properly designed. This paper addresses the optimal distribution problem in the aim of achieving a desired level of performance using the minimum number of metallic EDDs. Five local search heuristic algorithms are proposed to solve the problem. Four base structures are presented as numerical examples to verify the proposed algorithms. It is indicated that the performance of different algorithms may vary when applied in different situations. Based on the results of the numerical verification, the recommended guidelines are finally proposed for choosing the appropriate algorithm in different occasions.

Key Words
energy dissipation; local search heuristics; multi-story building; optimal distribution; seismic performance

Address
Zongjing Li and Jing Cao: College of Civil and Transportation Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098, China
Ganping Shu and Zhen Huang: School of Civil Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189, China

Abstract
The unique thermomechanical properties of shape memory alloys (SMAs) make it a versatile material for strengthening and repairing structures. In particular, several research studies have already demonstrated the effectiveness of using the heat activated shape memory effect of nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) based SMAs to actively confine concrete members. Despite the proven effectiveness and wide commercial availability of Ni-Ti SMAs, however, their high cost remains a major obstacle for applications in real structural engineering projects. In this study, the shape memory effect of a new, much more economical iron-based SMA (Fe-SMA) is characterized and the compressive behavior of concrete confined with Fe-SMA strips is investigated. Tests showed the Fe-SMA strips used in this study are capable of developing high levels of recovery stress and can be easily formed into hoops to provide effective active and passive confining pressure to concrete members. Compared to concrete cylinders confined with conventional carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites, Fe-SMA confinement yielded significantly higher compressive deformation capacity and residual strength. Overall, the compressive behavior of Fe- SMA confined concrete was comparable to that of Ni-Ti SMA confined concrete. This study clearly shows the potential for Fe-SMA as a robust and cost-effective strengthening solution for concrete structures and opens possibilities for more practical applications.

Key Words
active concrete confinement; compressive behavior; prestressing; shape memory alloy

Address
Saebyeok Jeong, Youngchan Lee and Dahye Yoo: Department of Architectural Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan, Republic of Korea
Kun-Ho E. Kim: Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Waterloo, Ontario, Canada
Kinam Hong: Department of Civil Engineering, Chungbuk National University, Chungbuk-do, Republic of Korea
Donghyuk Jung: School of Civil, Environmental and Architectural Engineering, Korea University, Seoul, Republic of Korea

Abstract
To investigate and evaluate the seismic damage behaviors of steel reinforced recycled concrete (SRRC) filled circular steel tube composite columns, in this study, the cyclic loading tests of 11 composite columns was carried out by using the load-displacement joint control method. The seismic damage process, hysteretic curves and performance indexes of composite columns were observed and obtained. The effects of replacement rates of recycled coarse aggregate (RCA), diameter thickness ratio, axial compression ratio, profile steel ratio and section form of profile steel on the seismic damage behaviors of composite columns were also analyzed in detail. The results show that the failure model of columns is a typical bending failure under the combined action of horizontal loads and vertical loads, and the columns have good energy dissipation capacity and ductility. In addition, the replacement rates of RCA have a certain adverse effect on the seismic bearing capacity, energy consumption and ductility of columns. The seismic damage characteristics of composite columns are revealed according to the failure modes and hysteretic curves. A modified Park-Ang seismic damage model based on the maximum displacement and cumulative energy consumption was proposed, which can consider the adverse effect of RAC on the seismic damage of columns. On this basis, the performance levels of composite columns are divided into five categories, The interlayer displacement angle and damage index are used as the damage quantitative indicators of composite columns, and the displacement angle limits of composite columns at different performance levels under 80% assurance rate are calculated as 1/105, 1/85, 1/65, 1/28, and 1/25 respectively. On this basis, the damage index limits corresponding to each performance level are calculated as 0.045, 0.1, 0.48, 0.8, and 1.0 respectively. Finally, the corresponding relations among the performance levels, damage degrees, interlayer displacement angles and damage indexes of composite columns are established. The conclusions can provide reference for the seismic design of SRRC filled circular steel tube composite columns, it fills the vacancy in the research on seismic damage of steel reinforced recycled concrete (SRRC) filled circular steel tube composite columns.

Key Words
composite columns; concrete filled steel tube; cyclic loading; seismic damage model; steel reinforced recycled concrete

Address
Hui Ma: State Key Laboratory of Eco-hydraulics in Northwest Arid Region, Xi'an University of Technology, Xi'an, China
School of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Xi'an University of Technology, Xi'an, China
Xiyang Liu and Yunchong Chen: School of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Xi'an University of Technology, Xi'an, China
Yanli Zhao: Research and Design Institute of Water Conservancy and Hydropower, Xi'an University of Technology, Xi'an, China

Abstract
Reinforced concrete (RC) beam column joints (BCJ) have mostly exhibited poor seismic performance during several past earthquakes, typically due to the poor-quality concrete or lack of reinforcement detailing typical of pre-code design practice. The present study is motivated towards numerical simulation and seismic fragility assessment of one such RC-BCJ. The BCJ is loaded to failure and strengthened using Ultra High Performance-Hybrid Fiber Reinforced Concrete (UHP-HFRC) jacketing. The strengthening is performed for four different BCJ specimens, each representing an intermediate damage state before collapse. viz., slight, moderate, severe, and collapse. From the numerical simulation of all the BCJ specimens, an attempt is made to correlate different modelling and design parameters of the BC joint with respect to the damage states. In addition, seismic fragility analysis of the original as well as the retrofitted damaged BCJ specimens show the relative enhancement achieved in each case.

Key Words
Beam Column Joint (BCJ); Hybrid Fiber Reinforced Concrete (HFRC); nonlinear analysis; performance; retrofitting; seismic fragility

Address
Civil Engineering Department, Thapar Institute of Engineering and Technology, Patiala, Punjab - 147004, India

Abstract
The research investigates experimentally the effect of confinement on structural behavior at the ends of beamcolumn in reinforced concrete (RC) frames. In the experimental study, five specimens consisting of 1/3-scaled RC frames having single-bay, representing the traditional deficiencies of existing buildings constructed without receiving proper engineering service is investigated. The RC frame specimens were produced to represent most of the existing buildings in Turkey that have damage potential. To decrease the probable damage to the existing buildings exposed to earthquakes, the carbon Textile Reinforced Mortar (TRM) strengthening technique (fully wrapping) was used on the ends of the RC frame elements to increase the energy dissipation and deformation capacity. The specimens were tested under reversed cyclic lateral loading with constant axial loads. They were constructed satisfying the weak column-strong beam condition and consisting of low-strength concrete, such as compressive strength of 15 MPa. The test results were compared and evaluated considering stiffness, strength, energy dissipation capacity, structural damping, ductility, and damage propagation in detail. Comprehensive investigations of these experimental results reveal that the strengthening of a brittle frame with fully-TRM wrapping with nonanchored was effective in increasing the stiffness, ductility, and energy dissipation capacities of RC bare frames. It was also observed that the frame-only-retrofitting with an infill wall is not enough to increase the ductility capacity. In this case, both the frame and infill wall must be retrofitted with TRM composite to increase the stiffness, lateral load carrying, ductility and energy dissipation capacities of RC frames. The presented strengthening method can be an alternative strengthening technique to enhance the seismic performance of existing or moderately damaged RC buildings.

Key Words
beam-column joint; carbon textile; reinforced concrete frame; critical ends of beam-column; retrofit; textile reinforced mortar

Address
Faculty of Civil Engineering, Istanbul Technical University, Turkey


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