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CONTENTS
Volume 19, Number 3, September 2020
 

Abstract
The in-situ pushover test differs from the shake-table test because it is performed outdoors and thus its size is not restricted by space, which allows us to test a full-size building. However, to build a new full-size building for the test is not economical, consequently scholars around the world usually make scale structures or full-scale component units to be tested in the laboratory. However, if in-situ pushover tests can be performed on full-size structures, then the seismic behaviors of buildings during earthquakes can be grasped. In view of this, this study conducts two in-situ pushover tests of reinforced concrete (RC) buildings. One is a masonry-infilled RC building with openings (the openings ratio of masonry infill wall is between 24% and 51%) and the other is an RC building without masonry infill. These two in-situ pushover tests adopt obsolescent RC buildings, which will be demolished, to conduct experiment and successfully obtain seismic capacity curves of the buildings. The test results are available for the development or verification of a seismic evaluation model. This paper uses ASCE 41-17 as the main evaluation model and is accompanied by a simplified pushover analysis, which can predict the seismic capacity curves of low-rise buildings in Taiwan. The predicted maximum base shear values for masonry-infilled RC buildings with openings and for RC buildings without masonry infill are, respectively, 69.69% and 87.33% of the test values. The predicted initial stiffness values are 41.04% and 100.49% of the test values, respectively. It can be seen that the ASCE 41-17 evaluation model is reasonable for the RC building without masonry infill walls. In contrast, the analysis result for the masonry infilled RC building with openings is more conservative than the test value because the ASCE 41-17 evaluation model is limited to masonry infill walls with an openings ratio not exceeding 40%. This study suggests using ASCE 41-17

Key Words
masonry infill; openings; in-situ pushover test; reinforced concrete; ASCE 41

Address
Chun-Ting Huang:Department of Civil Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan
Tsung-Chih Chiou:National Center for Research on Earthquake Engineering, NARLabs, Taipei, Taiwan
Lap-Loi Chung:Department of Civil Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan
Shyh-Jiann Hwang: Department of Civil Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan
Wen-Ching Jaung:Jaung Wen-Ching Civil Engineering Office, Hualien, Taiwan


Abstract
The Hengda Group super high-rise building in Jinan City uses the frame-core tube structural system. With a height of 238.3 m, it is above the B-level height limit of 150 m for buildings within 7-magnitude seismic fortification zones. Therefore, it is necessary to apply performance-based seismic design to this super high-rise building. In this study, response spectrum analysis and comparative analysis of the structure are conducted using two software applications. Moreover, elastic time-history analysis, seismic analysis under an intermediate earthquake, and elastic–plastic time-history analysis under rare earthquakes are performed. Based on the analysis results, corresponding strengthening measures are implemented at weaker structural locations, such as corners, wall ends connected to framed girders, and coupling beams connected to framed girders. The failure mode and failure zone of major stress components of the structure under rare earthquakes are analysed. The conclusions to this research demonstrate that weaker locations and important parts of the structure satisfy the requirements for elastic–plastic deformation in the event of rare earthquakes.

Key Words
high-rise building beyond the cold-specificatio; elastic-plastic analysis; performance-based seismic design; frame-corewall structure; seismic calculation

Address
China Architecture Design and Research Group, Beijing 100044, China

Abstract
The near-collapse performance limit is defined as the deformation at the 20% drop of maximum base shear in the decreasing region of the pushover curve for ductile framed buildings. Although monotonic pushover analysis is preferred due to the simple application procedure, this analysis gives rise to overestimated results by neglecting the cumulative damage effects. In the present study, the acceptabilities of monotonic and cyclic pushover analysis results for the near-collapse performance limit state are determined by comparing with Incremental Dynamic Analysis (IDA) results for a 5-story Reinforced Concrete framed building. IDA is performed to obtain the collapse point, and the near-collapse drift ratios for monotonic and cyclic pushover analysis methods are obtained separately. These two alternative drift ratios are compared with the collapse drift ratio. The correlations of the maximum tensile and compression strain at the base columns and beam plastic rotations with interstory drift ratios are acquired using the nonlinear time history analysis results by the simple linear regression analyses. It is seen that these parameters are highly correlated with the interstory drift ratios, and the results reveal that the near-collapse point acquired by monotonic pushover analysis causes unacceptably high tensile and compression strains at the base columns, as well as large plastic rotations at the beams. However, it is shown that the results of cyclic pushover analysis are acceptable for the near-collapse performance limit state.

Key Words
near-collapse, collapse-prevention, performance limit states, incremental dynamic analysis, tensile strains, compression strains; monotonic pushover; cyclic pushover

Address
Department of Architecture, Sivas Cumhuriyet University, 58140, Sivas, Turkey

Abstract
Diagrid structures have been introduced as a fairly modern lateral load-resisting system in the design of high-rise buildings. In this paper, a novel diagrid system called tube-in-tube diagrid building is introduced and assessed through pushover and incremental dynamic analyses. The main objectives of this paper are to find the optimum angle of interior and exterior diagrid tube and evaluate the efficiency of diagrid core on the probability of collapse comparing to the conventional diagrid system. Finally, the seismic performance factors of the proposed system are validated according to the FEMA P695 methodology. To achieve these, 36-story diagrid buildings with various external and internal diagonal angles are designed and then 3-D nonlinear models of these structures developed in PERFORM-3D. The results show that weight of steel material highly depends on diagonal angle of exterior tube. Adding diagrid core generally increases the over-strength factor and collapse margin ratio of tall diagrid buildings confirming high seismic safety margin for tube-in-tube diagrid buildings under severe excitations. Collapse probabilities of both structural systems under MCE records are less than 10%. Finally, response modification factor of 3.0 and over-strength factor of 2.0 and 2.5 are proposed for design of typical diagrid and tube-in-tube diagrid buildings, respectively.

Key Words
diagrid system; pushover; Incremental Dynamic Analysis (IDA); collapse margin ratio; FEMA P695; high-rise building

Address
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran

Abstract
self-centering wall (SCW) is a lateral resistant rocking system that incorporates posttensioned (PT) tendons to provide a self-centering capacity along with dampers to dissipate energy. This paper investigates the rocking responses of a SCW with base viscous dampers under a sinusoidal-type pulse considering yielding and fracture behaviour of the PT tendon. The differences in the overturning acceleration caused by different initial forces in the PT tendon are computed by the theoretical method. The exact analytical solution to the linear approximate equation of motion is also provided for slender SCWs. Finally, the effects of the ductile behaviour of PT tendons on the rocking response of a SCW are analysed. The results demonstrate that SCWs exhibit two overturning modes under pulse excitation. The overturning region with Mode 1 in the PT force cases separates the safe region of the wall into two parts: region S1 with an elastic tendon and region S2 with a fractured tendon. The minimum overturning acceleration of a SCW with an elastic-brittle tendon becomes insensitive to excitation frequency as the PT force increases. After the plastic behaviour of the PT tendon is considered, the minimum overturning acceleration of a SCW is increased significantly in the whole range of the studied wg/p

Key Words
self-centering wall; overturning acceleration spectrum; pulse type excitation; viscous dampers; inelastic tendon; analysis and computation

Address
Lingxin Zhang:1Institute of Engineering Mechanics, China Earthquake Administration; Key Laboratory of Earthquake Engineering and Engineering
and Engineering Vibration, China Earthquake Administration
Xiaogang Huang and Zhen Zhou:Key Laboratory of Concrete and Prestressed Concrete Structures of the Ministry of Education, Southeast University



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