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CONTENTS
Volume 19, Number 2, August 2020
 

Abstract
4- and 8-storey reinforced-concrete frame buildings are analyzed under the suites of the near-fault pulse-like, and the corresponding spectrally equivalent far-fault ground-motion records. Seismic fragility curves for the slight, moderate, extensive, and complete damage states are developed, and the damage probability matrices, and the mean loss ratios corresponding to the Design Basis Earthquake and the Maximum Considered Earthquake hazard levels are compared, for the investigated buildings and sets of ground-motion records. It is observed that the spectrally equivalent far-fault ground-motion records result in comparable estimates of the fragility curve parameters, as that of the near-fault pulse-like ground-motion records. As a result, the derived damage probability matrices and mean loss ratios using two suites of ground-motion records differ only marginally (of the order of ~10%) for the investigated levels of seismic hazard, thus, implying the potential for application of the spectrally equivalent ground-motion records, for seismic fragility and risk assessment at the near-fault sites.

Key Words
damage probability matrix; ground-motion; nonlinear response; reinforced-concrete frame buildings; seismic fragility; seismic risk

Address
Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Ropar, Rupnagar – 140001, Punjab, India

Abstract
This work presents an efficient and original hyperbolic shear deformation theory for the bending and dynamic behavior of functionally graded (FG) beams resting on Winkler - Pasternak foundations. The theory accounts for hyperbolic distribution of the transverse shear strains and satisfies the zero traction boundary conditions on the surfaces of the beam without using shear correction factors. Based on the present theory, the equations of motion are derived from Hamilton\'s principle. Navier type analytical solutions are obtained for the bending and vibration problems. The accuracy of the present solutions is verified by comparing the obtained results with the existing solutions. It can be concluded that the present theory is not only accurate but also simple in predicting the bending and vibration behavior of functionally graded beams.

Key Words
functionally graded material; Winkler-Pasternak elastic foundation; bending; free vibration; Hamilton

Address
Khaldoune Chami:Laboratory of Mechanical of Solids and Systems, M\'hamed Bougara University, Boumerdes, Algeria
Tahar Messafer:Research Unit of Materials, Processes and Environment, M

Abstract
The effect of the foundation size on the efficiency of seismic base isolation using a layer of stone pebbles is experimentally investigated. Four scaled models of buildings with different stiffnesses (from very stiff to soft) were tested, each with the so-called small and large foundation, and exposed to four different accelerograms (different predominant periods and durations). Tests were conducted so that the strains in the model remained elastic and afterwards the models were tested until collapse. Each model was tested for the case of the foundation being supported on a rigid base and on an aseismic layer. Compared to the smaller foundation, the larger foundation results in a reduced rocking effect, higher earthquake forces and lower bearing capacity of the tested models, with respectable efficiency (reduced strain/stress, displacement and increase of the ultimate bearing capacity of the model) for the considered seismic base isolation compared to the foundation on a rigid base.

Key Words
seismic base isolation; pebble layer; foundation size effect; shake-table study

Address
University of Split, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Architecture and Geodesy, Matice hrvatske 15, 21000 Split, Republic of Croatia

Abstract
In seismic design of a pylon supporting transmission lines in an overhead electricity transmission system, an estimation of the fundamental periods of the pylon in two orthogonal vertical planes is necessary to compute the seismic forces required for sizing pylon members and checking pylon deflections. In current practice, the fundamental periods of a pylon in two orthogonal vertical planes are typically obtained from eigenvalue analyses of a model consisting of the pylon of interest as well as some adjacent pylons and the transmission lines supported by these pylons. Such an approach is onerous and numerically inconvenient. This research focused on development of a simplified method to determine the fundamental periods of pylons. The simplified method is rooted in Rayleigh\'s quotient and is based on a single-pylon model. The force vectors that can be used to generate the shape vectors required in Rayleigh\'s quotient are presented in detail. Taking three pylons selected from representative overhead electricity transmission systems having different design parameters as examples, the fundamental periods of the chosen pylons predicted from the simplified method were compared with those from the rigorous eigenvalue analyses. Result comparisons show that the simplified method provides reasonable predictions and it can be used as a convenient surrogate for the tedious approach currently adopted.

Key Words
pylon; period; Rayleigh

Address
Li Tian,Guodong Gao:School of Civil Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong Province 250061, China
Bing Qu:Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, CA 93407


Abstract
In this study, the idea of damping force linearly proportional to horizontal isolation displacement is implemented into sloped rolling-type bearings in order to meet different seismic performance goals. In addition to experimentally demonstrating its practical feasibility, the previously developed analytical model is further modified to be capable of accurately predicting its hysteretic behavior. The numerical predictions by using the modified analytical model present a good match of the shaking table test results. Afterward, several sloped rolling-type bearings designed with linearly variable damping force are numerically compared with a bearing designed with conventional constant damping force. The initial friction damping force adopted in the former is designed to be smaller than the constant one adopted in the latter. The numerical comparison results indicate that when the horizontal isolation displacement does not exceed the designed turning point (or practically when subjected to minor or frequent earthquakes that seldom have a great displacement demand for seismic isolation), the linearly variable damping force design can exhibit a better acceleration control performance than the constant damping force design. In addition, the former, in general, advantages the re-centering performance over the latter. However, the maximum horizontal displacement response of the linearly variable damping force design, in general, is larger than that of the constant damping force design. It is particularly true when undergoing a horizontal isolation displacement response smaller than the designed turning point and designing a smaller value of initial friction damping force.

Key Words
sloped rolling-type bearing; linearly variable damping; analytical model; shaking table test; acceleration control; residual displacement

Address
Department of Civil and Construction Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology,
No.43, Sec.4, Keelung Rd., Taipei 10607, Taiwan

Abstract
The 24 January 2020 (Mw=6.8) earthquake with epicentre in Elazig (Sivrice) on the East Anatolian Fault Zone caused loss of life and property. The information was given about the seismotectonic setting and regional seismicity along this fault zone and aftershock activity and ground motion data of this earthquake. Earthquake parameters were obtained for five different earthquake stations which were closer to the epicentre. Horizontal and vertical design spectra were obtained for the geographic locations for each earthquake station. The obtained spectra for the earthquake epicentre were compared with selected appropriate attenuation relationships. The damages after earthquake were evaluated via geotechnical and structural aspects. This study also aims to investigate the cause-effect relationships between structural damage in reinforced-concrete and masonry structures, respectively. The lack of engineering services was effective on the amount of damage in masonry structures. Insufficient reinforcement and concrete strength, dimensions and inadequate detailing increased the amount of damage in reinforced-concrete structures. Importance should be given to negative parameters that may weaken the defence mechanisms of structures for earthquake-resistant structural design.

Key Words
Sivrice; earthquake; masonry; reinforced-concrete; structural damages; spectra

Address
Ercan Isik, Mehmet Cihan Aydin:Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Bitlis Eren University, TR-13100, Bitlis, Turkey
Aydin Buyuksarac:Can Vocational School, Canakkale Onsekizmart University, TR-17100, Canakkale-Turkey


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