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CONTENTS
Volume 19, Number 1, July 2020
 

Abstract
This study presents an investigation of the dynamic interactions between a surface structure lying on two different soil deposits and a square-shaped buried structure embedded in the soil. To this end, a large number of numerical models are generated by using a well-known Finite Element Method software, i.e., OpenSEES. The interaction phenomenon is assumed to be affected by six different parameters. In the parametric study, these parameters are assumed to have various values in accordance with the engineering practices. A total of 1620 possible combinations of the parameter values are addressed in this study. 30 different numerical models are also generated as the \'free-field cases\' to set a reference. The surface structure drift and acceleration amplifications are used as a measure to evaluate the dynamic interactions. The response (i.e., drifts and accelerations) amplifications are calculated as the ratio of the maximum surface structure response in any \'case\' to the maximum surface structure response in corresponding free-field case. Variation of the response amplifications with any of the investigated parameters is addressed in this paper. The results obtained from the numerical analyses clearly reveal that the presence of a buried structure in the vicinity of a surface structure can cause both amplification and de-amplification of the surface structure responses, depending on the case parameters.

Key Words


Address
Rafet Sisman and Yusuf Ayvaz: Department of Civil Engineering, Yildiz Technical University, Davutpasa Campus, Esenler, Istanbul, Turkey

Abstract
In this paper, a modified and improved seismic isolation system called suspension columns for seismic isolation was investigated. An experimental study of the proposed isolation method, together with theoretical and numerical analyses, has thoroughly been conducted. In the proposed method, during the construction of the foundation, some cavities are created at the position of the columns inside the foundation and the columns are placed inside the cavities and hanged from the foundation by flexible cables rather being directly connected to the foundation. Since the columns are suspended and due to the gap between the columns and walls of the cavities, the structure is able to move freely to each side thus, the transmitted seismic actions are reduced. The main parameter of this isolation technique is the length of the suspension cable. As the cable length is changed, the natural frequency of the structure is also changed, thus, the desired frequency can be achieved by means of an appropriate cable length. As the experimental phase of the study, a steel frame structure with two floors was constructed and subjected to the acceleration of three earthquakes using a shaking table with different hanging cable lengths. The structural responses were recorded in terms of acceleration and relative displacement. The experimental results were compared to the theoretical and numerical ones, obtained from the MATLAB programming and the finite element software ABAQUS, showing a suitable agreement between them. The results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed isolation method in reducing the seismic effects on the structure.

Key Words
seismic isolation; base isolation; suspended columns; passive control; cable hanger; shaking table test

Address
Ali Beirami Shahabi, Gholamreza Zamani Ahari:Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran
Majid Barghian: Faculty of Civil Engineering, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran

Abstract
The effectiveness and the sensitivity of a Wireless impedance/Admittance Monitoring System (WiAMS) for the prompt damage diagnosis of two single-storey single-span Reinforced Concrete (RC) frames under cyclic loading is experimentally investigated. The geometrical and the reinforcement characteristics of the RC structural members of the frames represent typical old RC frame structure without consideration of seismic design criteria. The columns of the frames are vulnerable to shear failure under lateral load due to their low height-to-depth ratio and insufficient transverse reinforcement. The proposed Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) system comprises of specially manufactured autonomous portable devices that acquire the in-situ voltage frequency responses of a network of twenty piezoelectric transducers mounted to the RC frames. Measurements of external and internal small-sized piezoelectric patches are utilized for damage localization and assessment at various and increased damage levels as the magnitude of the imposed lateral cycle deformations increases. A bare RC frame and a strengthened one using a pair of steel crossed tension-ties (X-bracing) have been tested in order to check the sensitivity of the developed WiAMS in different structural conditions since crack propagation, damage locations and failure mode of the examined frames vary. Indeed, the imposed loading caused brittle shear failure to the column of the bare frame and the formation of plastic hinges at the beam ends of the X-braced frame. Test results highlighted the ability of the proposed SHM to identify incipient damages due to concrete cracking and steel yielding since promising early indication of the forthcoming critical failures before any visible sign has been obtained.

Key Words
reinforced concrete (RC) frame; structural health monitoring (SHM); lateral cyclic testing; seismic vulnerability; shear; piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT); damage assessment

Address
Constantin E. Chalioris and Angelos A. Liolios:Department of Civil Engineering, School of Engineering, Democritus University of Thrace, Xanthi 67100, Greece
Maristella E. Voutetaki: Department of Architectural Engineering, School of Engineering, Democritus University of Thrace, Xanthi 67100, Greece

Abstract
This paper presents the experimental application of a new method for seismic vulnerability assessment of buildings recently introduced in literature, the SMAV (Seismic Model Ambient Vibration) methodology with reference to their operational limit state. The importance of this kind of evaluation arises from the civil protection necessity that some buildings, considered strategic for seismic emergency management, should retain their functionality also after a destructive earthquake. They do not suffer such damage as to compromise the operation within a framework of assessment of the overall capacity of the urban system. To this end, for the characterization of their operational vulnerability, a Structural Operational Index (IOPS) has been considered. In particular, the dynamic environmental vibrations of the two considered strategic buildings, the fire station and the town hall building of a small town in the South of Italy, have been monitored by positioning accelerometers in well-defined points. These measurements were processed through modern Operational Modal Analysis techniques (OMA) in order to identify natural frequencies and modal shapes. Once these parameters have been determined, the structural operational efficiency index of the buildings has been determined evaluating the seismic vulnerability of the strategic structures analyzed. his study aimed to develop a model to accurately predict the acceleration of structural systems during an earthquake.

Key Words
seismic vulnerability; operational modal analysis; equivalent linear model; structural operative index; nondestructive techniques; ambient vibrations; dynamic analysis

Address
Dora Foti, Pierluigi Greco, Michela Lerna, Raffaele Paolicelli:Dipartimento di Scienze dell

Abstract
The code static eccentricity model for elastic torsional design of structures has two critical shortcomings: (1) the negation of the inertial torsional moment at the center of mass (CM), particularly for torsionally-unbalanced (TU) building structures, and (2) the confusion caused by the discrepancy in the definition of the design eccentricity in codes and the resistance eccentricity commonly used by engineers such as in FEMA454. To overcome these shortcomings, using the resistance eccentricity model that can accommodate the inertial torsional moment at the CM, interactive relations between shear and torsion are proposed as follows: (1) elastic responses of structures at instants of peak edge-frame drifts are given as functions of resistance eccentricity, and (2) elastic hysteretic relationships between shear and torsion in forces and deformations are bounded by ellipsoids constructed using two adjacent dominant modes. Comparison of demands estimated using these two interactive relations with those from shake-table tests of two TU building structures (a 1:5-scale five-story reinforced concrete (RC) building model and a 1:12-scale 17-story RC building model) under the service level earthquake (SLE) show that these relations match experimental results of models reasonably well. Concepts proposed in this study enable engineers to not only visualize the overall picture of torsional behavior including the relationship between shear and torsion with the range of forces and deformations, but also pinpoint easily the information about critical responses of structures such as the maximum edge-frame drifts and the corresponding shear force and torsion moment with the eccentricity.

Key Words
torsionally-unbalanced; resistance eccentricity; shake-table test; accidental and inherent torsion

Address
Ruth A. Abegaz and Han Seon Lee:School of Civil, Environmental, and Architectural Engineering, Korea University, Seoul, 02841 Republic of Korea


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