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CONTENTS
Volume 18, Number 2, February 2020
 

Abstract
This paper presents a novel precast energy dissipation shear wall (PEDSW) structure system that using mild steel dampers as dry connectors at the vertical joints to connect adjacent wall panels. Analytical studies are systematically conducted to investigate the seismic performance of the proposed PEDSW under sequence-type ground motions. During earthquake events, earthquake sequences have the potential to cause severe damage to structures and threaten life safety. To date, the damage probability of engineering structures under earthquake sequence has not been included in structural design codes. In this study, numerical simulations on single-story PEDSW are carried out to validate the feasibility and reliability of using mild steel dampers to connect the precast shear walls. The seismic responses of the PEDSW and cast-in-place shear wall (CIPSW) are comparatively studied based on nonlinear time-history analyses, and the effectiveness of the proposed high-rise PEDSW is demonstrated. Next, the foreshock-mainshock-aftershock type earthquake sequences are constructed, and the seismic response and fragility curves of the PEDSW under single mainshock and earthquake sequences are analyzed and compared. Finally, the fragility analysis of PEDSW structure under earthquake sequences is performed. The influences of scaling factor of the aftershocks (foreshocks) to the mainshocks on the fragility of the PEDSW structure under different damage states are investigated. The numerical results reveal that neglecting the effect of earthquake sequence can lead to underestimated seismic responses and fragilities, which may result in unsafe design schemes of PEDSW structures.

Key Words
PEDSW structure; seismic performance; earthquake sequence; fragility curve

Address
Hao Zhang: School of Civil Engineering, Shenyang Jianzhu University, Shenyang 110168, China/ 3Guangdong Key Laboratory of Earthquake Engineering and Application Technology, Guangdong 510006, China
Zhi-Fang Wang:School of Civil Engineering, Shenyang Jianzhu University, Shenyang 110168, China
Cai-Yan Zhang:Guangdong Key Laboratory of Earthquake Engineering and Application Technology, Guangdong 510006, China

Abstract
Floor acceleration plays a major role in the seismic design of nonstructural components and equipment supported by structures. Large floor acceleration may cause structural damage to or even collapse of buildings. For precision instruments in high-tech factories, even small floor accelerations can cause considerable damage in this study. Six P-wave parameters, namely the peak measurement of acceleration, peak measurement of velocity, peak measurement of displacement, effective predominant period, integral of squared velocity, and cumulative absolute velocity, were estimated from the first 3 s of a vertical ground acceleration time history. Subsequently, a new predictive algorithm was developed, which utilizes the aforementioned parameters with the floor height and fundamental period of the structure as the new inputs of a support vector regression model. Representative earthquakes, which were recorded by the Structure Strong Earthquake Monitoring System of the Central Weather Bureau in Taiwan from 1992 to 2016, were used to construct the support vector regression model for predicting the peak floor acceleration (PFA) of each floor. The results indicated that the accuracy of the predicted PFA, which was defined as a PFA within a one-level difference from the measured PFA on Taiwan

Key Words
Support Vector Machine (SVM); Support Vector Regression (SVR); p-wave features; Peak Floor Acceleration (PFA); earthquake early warning; seismic hazard mitigation; reduced-scale model

Address
Kuang Yi Lin, Tzu Kang Lin and Yo Lin: Department of Civil Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, 1001 University road, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan, ROC

Abstract
The potential of using the roof water tanks as a mitigation measure to minimize the required separation gap and induced pounding forces due to collisions is investigated. The investigation is carried out using nonlinear dynamic analysis for two adjacent 3-story buildings with different dynamic characteristics under two real earthquake motions. For such analysis, nonlinear viscoelastic model is used to simulate forces due to impact. The sloshing force due to water movement is modelled in terms of width of the water tank and the instantaneous wave heights at the end wall. The effect of roof water tanks on the story\'s responses, separation gap, and magnitude and number of induced pounding forces are investigated. The influence of structural stiffness and storey mass are investigated as well. It is found that pounding causes instantaneous acceleration pulses in the colliding buildings, but the existence of roof water tanks eliminates such acceleration pulses. At the same time the water tanks effectively reduce the number of collisions as well as the magnitude of the induced impact forces. Moreover, buildings without constructed water tanks require wider separation gap to prevent pounding as compared to those with water tanks attached to top floor under seismic excitations.

Key Words
pounding; seismic gap; sloshing force; inelastic response; earthquake

Address
Department of Civil and Construction Engineering, College of Engineering, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Saudi Arabia

Abstract
A computationally-efficient method for multi-criteria optimisation is developed for performance-based seismic design of friction energy dissipation dampers in RC structures. The proposed method is based on the concept of Uniform Distribution of Deformation (UDD), where the slip-load distribution along the height of the structure is gradually modified to satisfy multiple performance targets while minimising the additional loads imposed on existing structural elements and foundation. The efficiency of the method is demonstrated through optimisation of 3, 5, 10, 15 and 20-storey RC frames with friction wall dampers subjected to design representative earthquakes using single and multi-criteria optimisation scenarios. The optimum design solutions are obtained in only a few steps, while they are shown to be independent of the selected initial slip loads and convergence factor. Optimum frames satisfy all predefined design targets and exhibit up to 48% lower imposed loads compared to designs using a previously proposed slip-load distribution. It is also shown that dampers designed with optimum slip load patterns based on a set of spectrum-compatible synthetic earthquakes, on average, provide acceptable design solutions under multiple natural seismic excitations representing the design spectrum.

Key Words
multi-criteria optimisation; seismic performance; friction damper; slip load distribution; energy dissipation

Address
Neda Nabid, Iman Hajirasouliha and Mihail Petkovski: Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK

Abstract
Seismic damages that occurred by the effects of epicenter distance of the earthquake are one of the most important problems for the earthquake engineering. In this study, it is aimed to examine the nonlinear seismic behaviors of concrete gravity (CG) dams considering various epicenter distances. For this purpose, Boyabat CG dam that is one of the biggest concrete gravity dams in Turkey is selected as a numerical application. FLAC3D software based on finite difference method is used for modelling and analyzing of the dam. Drucker-Prager nonlinear material model is used for the concrete body and Mohr-Coulomb nonlinear material model is taken into account for the foundation. Special interface elements are used between dam body and foundation to represent interaction condition. Free-field and quiet non-reflecting boundary conditions are utilized for the main surfaces of 3D model. Total 5 various epicenter distances of 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake are considered in 3D earthquake analyses and these distances are 5 km, 11 km, 24 km, 85 km and 93 km, respectively. According to 3D seismic results, x-y-z displacements, principal stresses and shear strain failures of the dam are evaluated in detail. It is clearly seen from this study that the nonlinear seismic behaviors of the CG dams change depending to epicenter distance of the earthquake. Thus, it is clearly recommended in this study that when a CG dam is modelled or analyzed, distance of the earthquake fault to the dam should be strongly examined in detail. Otherwise, earthquake damages can be occurred in the concrete dam body by the effects of seismic loads

Key Words
concrete gravity dam; earthquake performance; epicenter distance; interaction condition; non-reflecting boundary condition

Address
Memduh Karalar and Murat Çavuşli: Zonguldak Bulent Ecevit University, Department of Civil engineering, Zonguldak, Turkey

Abstract
In this paper, slit steel rubber bearing is presented as an innovative seismic isolator device. In this type of isolator, slit steel damper is an energy dissipation device. Its advantages in comparison with that of the lead rubber bearing are its simplicity in manufacturing process and replacement of its yielding parts. Also, slit steel rubber bearing has the same ability to dissipate energy with smaller value of displacement. Using finite element method in ABAQUS software, a parametric study is done on the performance of this bearing. Three different kinds of isolator with three different values of strut width, 9, 12 and 15 mm, three values of thickness, 4, 6 and 8 mm and two steel types with different yield stress are assessed. Effects of these parameters on the performance characteristics of slit steel rubber bearing are studied. It is shown that by decreasing the thickness and strut width and by selecting the material with lower yield stress, values of effective stiffness, energy dissipation capacity and lateral force in the isolator reduce but equivalent viscous damping is not affected significantly. Thus, by choosing appropriate values for thickness, strut width and slit steel damper yield stress, an isolator with the desired behavior can be achieved. Finally, the performance of an 8-storey frame with the proposed isolator is compared with the same frame equipped with LRB. Results show that SSRB is successful in base shear reduction of structure in a different way from LRB.

Key Words
slit steel rubber bearing; base-isolation; cyclic behavior; energy dissipation; lead rubber bearing

Address
Mahdi Saadatnia:Department of Civil Engineering, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Najafabad, Iran
Hossein Tajmir Riah : Department of Civil Engineering, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Najafabad, Iran/ Department of Civil Engineering, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran
Mohsen Izadinia:Department of Civil Engineering, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Najafabad, Iran


Abstract
Due to the fact that Bingol province is at the intersection of the North Anatolian Fault and the Eastern Anatolian Fault, the seismicity of the region is important. In this study, probabilistic seismic hazard analyzes (PSHA) were conducted to cover the boundaries of Bingöl province. It occurred since 1900, the seismicity of the region was obtained statistically by considering the earthquake records with a magnitude greater than 4 and the Gutenberg-Richter correlation. In the study, magnitude-frequency relationship, seismic hazard and repetition periods were obtained for certain time periods (10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 75 and 100 years). Once a project area determined in this study, which may affect the peak ground acceleration according to various attenuation relationships are calculated and using the Turkey Earthquake Hazard Map, average acceleration value for Bingöl province were determined. As a result of the probabilistic seismic hazard analysis, the project earthquakes with a probability of exceeding 50 years indicate that the magnitude of the project earthquake is 7.4 and that the province is in a risky area in terms of seismicity. The repetition periods of earthquakes of 6.0, 6.5, 7.0 and 7.5 are 42, 105, 266 and 670 years respectively. Within the province of Bingol; the probability of exceeding 50 years is 2%, 10% and 50%, while the peak ground acceleration values are 1.03 g, 0.58 g and 0.24 g. As a result, probabilistic seismic hazard analysis shows that the seismicity of the region is high and the importance of considering the earthquake effect during construction is emphasized for this region.

Key Words
seismic hazard analysis; PSHA; Gutenberg-Richter correlation; peak ground acceleration; Bingol

Address
Bilal Balun: Centre for Energy the Environment and Natural Disasters and Department of Architecture, Bingol University, Bingol, Turkey
Ömer Faruk Nemutlu:Centre for Energy the Environment and Natural Disasters and Department of Civil Engineering, Bingol University, Bingol, Turkey
Ahmet Benli: Department of Civil Engineering, Bingol University, Bingol, Turkey
Ali Sar

Abstract
In this article, one of the procedures to design viscous dampers proposed in literature is applied to 3D asymmetric-plan buildings, considering different distributions for the damping coefficients, which are assumed to be proportional to specific structural or response parameters. The main purpose was to investigate the effectiveness of different vertical and in-plan distributions of the damping coefficients of nonlinear viscous dampers for the seismic retrofit of existing buildings. For comparison purposes, all the distributions were applied utilizing both a simplified and an extended method for the 3D structures, where the simplified method takes into account only the translation in the seismic direction, and the extended method considers the translations along the two orthogonal directions together with the floor rotations. The proposed distributions were then applied to a typical case study involving an asymmetric-plan six-storey RC building. The effectiveness of the different distributions was examined through time-history analyses, assuming nonlinear behaviour for both the viscous dampers and the structural elements. The results of the nonlinear dynamic analyses were examined in terms of maximum and residual inter-storey drifts, peak floor accelerations and maximum damper forces.

Key Words
damping distribution; seismic retrofit; asymmetric-plan structures; existing buildings; nonlinear viscous dampers; design procedure; nonlinear dynamic analysis

Address
Luca Landi, Andrea Molari and Pier Paolo Diotallevi: Department DICAM, University of Bologna, Viale Risorgimento 2, Bologna 40136, Italy

Abstract
Seismic loss estimation studies require fragility curves which are usually derived using ground motion datasets. Ground motion records can be either in the form of recorded or simulated time histories compatible with regional seismicity. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the use of alternative ground motion datasets (simulated and real) on the fragility curves. Simulated dataset is prepared considering regional seismicity parameters corresponding to Erzincan using the stochastic finite-fault technique. In addition, regionally compatible records are chosen from the NGA-West2 ground motion database to form the real dataset. The paper additionally studies the effects of hazard variability and two different fragility curve derivation approaches on the generated fragility curves. As the final step for verification purposes, damage states estimated for the fragility curves derived using alternative approaches are compared with the observed damage levels from the 1992 Erzincan (Turkey) earthquake (Mw=6.6). In order to accomplish all these steps, a set of representative masonry buildings from Erzincan region are analyzed using simplified structural models. The results reveal that regionally simulated ground motions can be used alternatively in fragility analyses and damage estimation studies.

Key Words
real records; simulated records; masonry structures; fragility curves; sensitivity analysis

Address
Shaghayegh Karimzadeh, Koray Kadas, Aysegul Askan, M. Altug Erberik and Ahmet Yakut: Department of Civil Engineering, Middle East Technical University, Üniversiteler Mahallesi, Dumlup

Abstract
The use of energy concepts in seismic analysis and design of structures requires the understanding of the input energy response of multi-degree-of-freedom (MDOF) systems subjected to strong ground motions. For design purposes and non-time consuming analysis, however, it would be beneficial to associate the input energy response of MDOF systems with those of single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) systems. In this paper, the theoretical formulation of energy input to MDOF systems is developed on the basis that only a particular portion of the total mass distributed among floor levels is effective in the nth-mode response. The input energy response histories of several reinforced concrete frames subjected to a set of eleven horizontal acceleration histories selected from actual recorded events and scaled in time domain are obtained. The contribution of the fundamental mode to the total input energy response of MDOF frames is demonstrated both graphically and numerically. The input energy of the fundamental mode is found to be a good indicator of the total energy input to two-dimensional regular MDOF structures. The numerical results computed by the proposed formulation are verified with relative input energy time histories directly computed from linear time history analysis. Finally, the elastic input energies are compared with those computed from time history analysis of nonlinear MDOF systems.

Key Words


Address
Department of Architecture, Dokuz Eylul University, 35390, Buca, Izmir, Turkey


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