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CONTENTS
Volume 16, Number 2, February 2019
 

Abstract
This paper develops a new method for estimating the elastic-plastic buckling strength of the truss structures under the static and seismic loads. Firstly, a new method for estimating the buckling strength of the truss structures was derived based on the buckling strength of the representative member considering the parameters, such as the structure configurations, boundary conditions, etc. Secondly, the new method was verified through the buckling strength estimation and the finite element method (FEM) analysis of the single member models, portal frame models and simple truss models. Finally, the method was applied to evaluate the buckling strength of a simple truss structure under seismic load, and the failure loads between the proposed method and the FEM were analyzed reasonably. The results show that the new method is feasible and reliable for structure engineers to estimate the buckling strengths of the truss structures under the static loads and seismic loads.

Key Words
buckling strength; representative member; truss structures; static load; seismic load

Address
Yi Pan, Renqi Gu, Ming Zhang: School of Civil Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031, China
Gerry Parke, Alireza Behnejad: Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH, UK

Abstract
In this study, a well-established model and a new simplified version of it, that help avoid collapses in reinforced concrete structures during strong earthquakes, are presented and discussed. Using this model, the initial formation of plastic hinges and the final concentration of the damages only in beams are accurately assured. The model also assures that the columns and the beam-column joints can remain intact. This model can be applied for the design of modern R/C structures, as well as for the design of strengthening schemes of old R/C structures by the use of reinforced concrete jackets. The model can also predict the form of earthquake damages in old structures but also earthquake damages in the modern structures.

Key Words
beam-column; frames; connections; cyclic loads; reinforced concrete structural analysis

Address
Alexandros-Dimitrios G. Tsonos: Department of Civil Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-54-124 Thessaloniki, Greece

Abstract
By integrating an active tuned mass damper (ATMD) and an inerter, the ATMDI has been proposed to attenuate undesirable oscillations of structures under the ground acceleration. Employing the mode generalized system, the dynamic magnification factors (DMF) of the structure-ATMDI system are formulated. The criterion can then be defined as the minimization of maximum values of the DMF of the controlled structure for optimum searching. By resorting to the defined criterion and the particle swarm optimization (PSO), the effects of varying the crucial parameters on the performance of ATMDI have been scrutinized in order to probe into its superiority. Furthermore, the results of both ATMD and tuned mass dampers inerter (TMDI) are included into consideration for comparing. Results corroborate that the ATMDI outperforms both ATMD and TMDI in terms of the effectiveness and robustness. Especially, the ATMDI may greatly reduce the demand on both the mass ratio and inerter mass ratio, thus being capable of further miniaturizing both the ATMD and TMDI. Likewise the miniaturized ATMDI still keeps nearly the same stroke as the TMDI with a larger mass ratio. Hence, the ATMDI is deemed to be a high performance control device with the miniaturization and suitable for super-tall buildings.

Key Words
structural vibration control; active tuned mass damper inerter; high performance; particle swarm optimization; miniaturization; super-tall buildings

Address
Chunxiang Li and Liyuan Cao: Department of Civil Engineering, Shanghai University, No. 99 Shangda Road, Shanghai 200444, P.R. China

Abstract
Incremental dynamic analysis (IDA), as an accurate method to evaluate the parameters of structural performance levels, requires many non-linear time history analyses, using a set of ground motion records which are scaled to different intensity levels. Therefore, this method is very computationally demanding. In this study, a new method is presented to estimate the summarized (16%, 50%, and 84% fractiles) IDA curves of a first-mode dominated structure using discrete wavelet transform and bees optimization algorithm. This method reduces the number of required ground motion records for the prediction of the summarized IDA curves. At first, a subset of first list ground motion records is decomposed by means of discrete wavelet transform which have a low dispersion estimating the summarized IDA curves of equivalent SDOF system of the main structure. Then, the bees algorithm optimizes a series of factors for each level of detail coefficients in discrete wavelet transform. The applied factors change the frequency content of original ground motion records which the generated ground motions records can be utilized to reliably estimate the summarized IDA curves of the main structure. At the end, to evaluate the efficiency of the proposed method, the seismic behavior of a typical 3-story special steel moment frame, subjected to a set of twenty ground motion records is compared with this method.

Key Words
discrete wavelet transform; summarized IDA curves; frequency content; performance-based earthquake engineering; bees optimization algorithm

Address
Homayoon Shahryari, M. Reza Karami: Department of Civil Engineering, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, P.O. Box 15875-4416, Tehran, Iran
Alireza A. Chiniforush: Centre for Infrastructure Engineering and Safety, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia

Abstract
In this paper, a new refined hyperbolic shear deformation beam theory for the bending analysis of functionally graded beam is presented. The theory accounts for hyperbolic distribution of the transverse shear strains and satisfies the zero traction boundary conditions on the surfaces of the functionally graded beam without using shear correction factors. In addition, the effect of different micromechanical models on the bending response of these beams is studied. Various micromechanical models are used to evaluate the mechanical characteristics of the FG beams whose properties vary continuously across the thickness according to a simple power law. Based on the present theory, the equilibrium equations are derived from the principle of virtual work. Navier type solution method was used to obtain displacement and stresses, and the numerical results are compared with those available in the literature. A detailed parametric study is presented to show the effect of different micromechanical models on the flexural response of a simply supported FG beams.

Key Words
FG beams; nicromechanical models; bending; Navier solution

Address
Nafissa Zouatnia : Department of Civil Engineering, Ibn Khaldoun University, BP 78 Zaaroura, Tiaret, 14000, Algeria; Laboratory of Structures, Geotechnics and Risks (LSGR), Hassiba Benbouali University of Chlef,
Algeria, BP 151, Hay Essalam, UHB Chlef, Chlef, 02000, Algeria
Lazreg Hadji: Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ibn Khaldoun University, BP 78 Zaaroura, Tiaret, 14000, Algeria; Laboratory of Geomatics and Sustainable Development, Ibn Khaldoun University of Tiaret, Algeria

Abstract
One of the shortcomings of seismic bridge design codes is the lack of clarity in defining the role of different seismic isolation systems with linear or nonlinear behavior in terms of R-factor. For example, based on AASHTO guide specifications for seismic isolation design, R-factor for all substructure elements of isolated bridges should be half of those expressed in the AASHTO standard specifications for highway bridges (i.e., R=3 for single columns and R=5 for multiple column bent) but not less than 1.50. However, no distinction is made between two commonly used types of seismic isolation devices, i.e., elastomeric rubber bearing (ERB) with linear behavior, and lead rubber bearing (LRB) with nonlinear behavior. In this paper, five existing bridges located in Iran with two types of deck-pier connection including ERB and LRB isolators, and two bridge models with monolithic deck-pier connection are developed and their R-factor values are assessed based on the Uang\'s method. The average R-factors for the bridges with ERB isolators are calculated as 3.89 and 4.91 in the longitudinal and transverse directions, respectively, which are not in consonance with the AASHTO guide specifications for seismic isolation design (i.e., R=3/2=1.5 for the longitudinal direction and R=5/2=2.5 for the transverse direction). This is a clear indicator that the code-prescribed Rfactors are conservative for typical bridges with ERB isolators. Also for the bridges with LRB isolators, the average computed Rfactors equal 1.652 and 2.232 in the longitudinal and transverse directions, respectively, which are in a good agreement with the code-specified R-factor values. Moreover, in the bridges with monolithic deck-pier connection, the average R-factor in the longitudinal direction is obtained as 2.92 which is close to the specified R-factor in the bridge design codes (i.e., 3), and in the transverse direction is obtained as 2.41 which is about half of the corresponding R-factor value in the specifications (i.e., 5).

Key Words
response modification factor; concrete bridge; nonlinear static analysis; nonlinear time-history analysis; seismic isolator; ductility; seismic design

Address
Seyed Mehdi Zahrai: School of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, The University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
Amir Khorraminejad: Department of Civil Engineering, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran
Parshan Sedaghati: Department of Civil Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan, Iran

Abstract
The objective of this study is to propose new seismic intensity parameters based on the Hilbert spectrum and to associate them with the seismic damage potential. In recent years the assessment of even more seismic features derived from the seismic acceleration time-histories was associated with the structural damage. For a better insight into the complex seismic acceleration time-history, Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT) analysis is utilized for its processing, and the Hilbert spectrum is obtained. New proposed seismic intensity parameters based on the Hilbert spectrum are derived. The aim is to achieve a significant estimation of the seismic damage potential on structures from the proposed new intensity parameters confirmed by statistical methods. Park-Ang overall structural damage index is used to describe the postseismic damage status of structures. Thus, a set of recorded seismic accelerograms from all over the word is applied on a reinforced concrete frame structure, and the Park-Ang indices through nonlinear dynamic analysis are provided and considered subsequently as reference numerical values. Conventional seismic parameters, with well-known seismic structural damage interrelation, are evaluated for the same set of excitations. Statistical procedures, namely correlation study and multilinear regression analysis, are applied on the set of the conventional parameters and the set of proposed new parameters separately, to confirm their interrelation with the seismic structural damage. The regression models are used for the evaluation of the structural damage indices for every set of parameters, respectively. The predicted numerical values of the structural damage indices evaluated from the two sets of seismic intensity parameters are inter-compared with the reference values. The numerical results confirm the ability of the proposed Hilbert spectrum based new seismic intensity parameters to approximate the postseismic structural damage with a smaller Standard Error of Estimation than this accomplished of the conventional ones.

Key Words
seismic intensity parameters; Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT); Park and Ang damage index; multilinear regression analysis; structural damage evaluation

Address
Magdalini Tyrtaiou and Anaxagoras Elenas: Department of Civil Engineering, Institute of Structural Statics and Dynamics, Democritus University of Thrace, 67100 Xanthi, Greece

Abstract
Unbonded Post-Tensioned (UPT) precast concrete systems have been shown to provide excellent seismic resistance. In order to improve understanding of the dynamic response of UPT systems, a series of snap back tests on four UPT systems was undertaken consisting of one Single Rocking Wall (SRW) and three Precast Wall with End Columns (PreWEC) systems. The snap back tests provided both a static pushover and a nonlinear free vibration response of a system. As expected the SRW exhibited an approximate bi-linear inertia force-drift response during the free vibration decay and the PreWEC walls showed an inertia force-drift response with increased strength and energy dissipation due to the addition of steel O-connectors. All walls exhibited negligible residual drifts regardless of the number of O-connectors or the post-tensioning force. When PreWEC systems of the same strength were compared the inclusion of further energy dissipating O-connectors was found to decrease the measured peak wall acceleration. Both the local and global wall parameters measured at pseudo-static and dynamic loading rates showed similar behaviour, which demonstrates that the dynamic behaviour of UPT walls is well represented by pseudo-static tests. The SRW was found to have Equivalent Viscous Damping (EVD) between 0.9-3.8% and the three PreWEC walls were found to have maximum EVD of between 14.7-25.8%.

Key Words
self-centering; unbonded post-tensioning; precast concrete; shear wall; dynamic loading; PreWEC; Oconnector; energy dissipation

Address
Kimberley M. Twigden: Aurecon, PO Box 9762, Newmarket, Auckland, 1149, New Zealand
Richard S. Henry: Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Auckland, Auckland, 1010, New Zealand

Abstract
Today, many important concrete face rockfill dams (CFRDs) have been built on the world, and some of these important structures are located on the strong seismic regions. In this reason, examination and monitoring of these water construction\'s seismic behaviour is very important for the safety and future of these dams. In this study, the nonlinear seismic behaviour of Ilisu CFR dam which was built in Turkey in 2017, is investigated for various reservoir water heights taking into account 1995 Kobe near-fault and far-fault ground motions. Three dimensional (3D) finite difference model of the dam is created using the FLAC3D software that is based on the finite difference method. The most suitable mesh range for the 3D model is chosen to achieve the realistic numerical results. Mohr-Coulomb nonlinear material model is used for the rockfill materials and foundation in the seismic analyses. Moreover, Drucker-Prager nonlinear material model is considered for the concrete slab to represent the nonlinearity of the concrete. The dam body, foundation and concrete slab constantly interact during the lifetime of the CFRDs. Therefore, the special interface elements are defined between the dam body-concrete slab and dam body-foundation due to represent the interaction condition in the 3D model. Free field boundary condition that was used rarely for the nonlinear seismic analyses, is considered for the lateral boundaries of the model. In addition, quiet artificial boundary condition that is special boundary condition for the rigid foundation in the earthquake analyses, is used for the bottom of the foundation. The hysteric damping coefficients are separately calculated for all of the materials. These special damping values is defined to the FLAC3D software using the special fish functions to capture the effects of the variation of the modulus and damping ratio with the dynamic shear-strain magnitude. Total 4 different reservoir water heights are taken into account in the seismic analyses. These water heights are empty reservoir, 50 m, 100 m and 130 m (full reservoir), respectively. In the nonlinear seismic analyses, near-fault and far-fault ground motions of 1995 Kobe earthquake are used. According to the numerical analyses, horizontal displacements, vertical displacements and principal stresses for 4 various reservoir water heights are evaluated in detail. Moreover, these results are compared for the near-fault and far-faults earthquakes. The nonlinear seismic analysis results indicate that as the reservoir height increases, the nonlinear seismic behaviour of the dam clearly changes. Each water height has different seismic effects on the earthquake behaviour of Il

Key Words
concrete face rockfill dam; dam-foundation-concrete slab interaction; free field and quiet boundary condition; near-fault-far-fault earthquake; seismic safety

Address
Memduh Karalar and Murat Çavuşli: Department of Civil Engineering, Zonguldak Bulent Ecevit University, Zonguldak, Turkey

Abstract
Corrosion of reinforcement is the greatest threat to the safety of existing reinforced concrete (RC) structures. Most of the olden structures are gravity load designed (GLD) and are seismically deficient. In present study, investigations are carried out on corrosion damaged GLD beam-column sub-assemblages under reverse cyclic loading, in order to evaluate their seismic performance. Five GLD beam-column sub-assemblage specimens comprising of i) One uncorroded ii) Two corroded iii) One uncorroded strengthened with steel bracket and haunch iv) One corroded strengthened with steel bracket and haunch, are tested under reverse cyclic loading. The performances of these specimens are assessed in terms of hysteretic behaviour, energy dissipation and strength degradation. It is noted that the nature of corrosion i.e. uniform or pitting corrosion and its location have significant influence on the behaviour of corrosion damaged GLD beam-column sub-assemblages. The corroded specimens with localised corrosion pits showed in-cyclic strength degradation. The study also reveals that external strengthening which provides an alternate force path but depends on the strength of the existing reinforcement bars, is able to mitigate the seismic risk of corroded GLD beam-column sub-assemblages to the level of control uncorroded GLD specimen.

Key Words
corrosion; beam-column sub-assemblage; gravity load designed; energy dissipation; hysteretic behaviour; reverse cyclic loading; in-cyclic strength degradation

Address
A. Kanchanadevi and K. Ramanjaneyulu: CSIR-Structural Engineering Research Centre, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India; Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), India


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