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CONTENTS
Volume 30, Number 6, December 2022
 


Abstract
The use of carbon fiber-reinforced polymers (CFRP) has widely increased due to its enhancement in the ultimate strength and ductility of the reinforced concrete (RC) structures. This study presents a prediction model for the axial compressive strength and strain of normal-strength concrete cylinders confined with CFRP. Besides, soft computing approaches have been extensively used to model in many areas of civil engineering applications. Therefore, the genetic expression programming (GEP) models to predict axial compressive strength and strain of CFRP-confined concrete specimens were used in this study. For this purpose, the parameters of 283 CFRP-confined concrete specimens collected from 38 experimental studies in the literature were taken into account as input variables to predict GEP based models. Then, the results of GEP models were statistically compared with those of models proposed by various researchers. The values of R2 for strength and strain of CFRPconfined concrete were obtained as 0.897 and 0.713, respectively. The results of the comparison reveal that the proposed GEPbased models for CFRP-confined concrete have the best efficiency among the existing models and provide the best performance.

Key Words
carbon fiber-reinforced polymers; confined concrete; gene expression programming; strain; strength

Address
Sema Alacali: Department of Civil Engineering, Yildiz Technical University, 34220, Istanbul, Türkiye

Abstract
Due to the enormous cement content, pozzolanic materials, and the use of different aggregates, sustainable controlled low-strength material (CLSM) has a higher material cost than conventional concrete and sustainable construction issues. However, by selecting appropriate materials and formulations, as well as cement and aggregate content, whitethorn costs can be reduced while having a positive environmental impact. This research explores the desire to optimize plastic properties and 28-day unconfined compressive strength (UCS) of CLSM containing powder content from unprocessed-fly ash (u-FA) and recycled fine aggregate (RFA). The mixtures' input parameters consist of water-to-cementitious material ratio (W/CM), fly ash-tocementitious materials (FA/CM), and paste volume percentage (PV%), while flowability, bleeding, segregation index, and 28- day UCS were the desired responses. The central composite design (CCD) notion was used to produce twenty CLSM mixes and was experimentally validated using MATLAB by an Artificial Neural Network (ANN). Variance analysis (ANOVA) was used for the determination of statistical models. Results revealed that the plastic properties of CLSM improve with the FA/CM rise when the strength declines for 28 days-with an increase in FA/CM, the diameter of the flowability and bleeding decreased. Meanwhile, the u-FA's rise strengthens the CLSM's segregation resistance and raises its strength over 28 days. Using calcareous powder as a substitute for cement has a detrimental effect on bleeding, and 28-day UCS increases segregation resistance. The response surface method (RSM) can establish high correlations between responses and the constituent materials of sustainable CLSM, and the optimal values of variables can be measured to achieve the desired response properties.

Key Words
central composite design; fly ash; optimization; plastic properties; recycled fine aggregate; response surface method; sustainable controlled low-strength materials; unconfined compressive strengths

Address
Mohd Azrizal Fauzi: School of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia; Centre for Civil Engineering Studies, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Cawangan Pulau Pinang, Permatang Pauh Campus, 13500 Pulau Pinang, Malaysia
Mohd Fadzil Arshad: School of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia
Noorsuhada Md Nor: Centre for Civil Engineering Studies, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Cawangan Pulau Pinang, Permatang Pauh Campus, 13500 Pulau Pinang, Malaysia
Ezliana Ghazali: School of Civil Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Nibong Tebal 14300, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia

Abstract
The purpose of this study is to examine the effectiveness of biological repairing mortars on restoring the structural performance of a sewage culvert deteriorated by sulfate attack. The biological mortars were developed for protecting concrete structures exposed to sulfate attack based on the block membrane action of the bacterial glycocalyx. The diffusion coefficient of sulfate ions in the biological mortars was determined from the natural diffusion cell tests. The effect of sulfate-attack-induced concrete deterioration on the structural performance of culverts was examined by using the moment-curvature relationship predicted based on the nonlinear section lamina approach considering the sulfuric-acid-induced degradation of the structure. Typical analytical assessments showed that biological mortars were quite effective in increasing the sulfate-resistant service life of sewage culverts.

Key Words
biological mortar; culvert; moment-curvature relationship; service life; sulfate attack

Address
Hyun-Sub Yoon: Department of Architectural Engineering, Kyonggi University, 154-42 Gwanggyosan-ro, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon 16227, Republic of Korea
Keun-Hyeok Yang: Department of Architectural Engineering, Kyonggi University, 154-42 Gwanggyosan-ro, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon 16227, Republic of Korea
Nguyen Van Tuan: Faculty of Building Materials, Hanoi University of Civil Engineering, 55 Giai Phong Road, Hai Ba Trung District, Hanoi, Vietnam
Seung-Jun Kwon: Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Hannam University, 70 Hannam-ro, Daedeok-gu, Daejeon 34430, Republic of Korea

Abstract
Recently, the interminable ozone depletion and the global warming concerns has led to construction industries to seek for construction materials which are eco-friendly. Regarding this, Geopolymer Concrete (GPC) is getting great interest from researchers and scientists, since it can operate by-product waste to replace cement which can lead to the reduction of greenhouse gas emission through its production. Also, compared to ordinary concrete, geopolymer concrete belongs improved mechanical and durability properties. In spite of its positive properties, the practical use of geopolymer concrete is currently limited. This is primarily owing to the scarce structural, design and application knowledge. This study investigates the Mechanical and Durability of Geopolymer Concrete Containing Fibers and Recycled Aggregate. Mixtures of elastoplastic fiber reinforced geopolymer concrete with partial replacement of recycled coarse aggregate in different proportions of 10, 20, 30, and 40% with natural aggregate were fabricated. On the other hand, geopolymer concrete of 100% natural aggregate was prepared as a control specimen. To consider both strength and durability properties and to evaluate the combined effect of recycled coarse aggregate and elastoplastic fiber, an elastoplastic fiber with the ratio of 0.4% and 0.8% were incorporated. The highest compressive strength achieved was 35 MPa when the incorporation of recycled aggregates was 10% with the inclusion of 0.4% elastoplastic fiber. From the result, it was noticed that incorporation of 10% recycled aggregate with 0.8% of the elastoplastic fiber is the perfect combination that can give a GPC having enhanced tensile strength. When specimens exposed to freezing-thawing condition, the physical appearance, compressive strength, weight loss, and ultrasonic pulse velocity of the samples was investigated. In general, all specimens tested performed resistance to freezing thawing. the obtained results indicated that combination of recycled aggregate and elastoplastic fiber up to some extent could be achieved a geopolymer concrete that can replace conventional concrete.

Key Words
compressive strength; flexural strength; geopolymer concrete; recycled aggregate

Address
Abdelaziz Yousuf Mohamed: Civil Engineering Department, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Yildiz Technical University, Davutpasa Campus, Istanbul, Turkey
Orhan Canpolat: Civil Engineering Department, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Yildiz Technical University, Davutpasa Campus, Istanbul, Turkey
Mukhallad M. Al-Mashhadani: Civil Engineering Department, Architecture and Engineering Faculty, Istanbul Gelisim University, Avcilar Campus, Istanbul, Turkey

Abstract
In the current paper, the nonlinear resonance response of functionally graded graphene platelet reinforced (FGGPLRC) beams by considering different boundary conditions is investigated using the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory. Four different graphene platelets (GPLs) distributions including UD and FG-O, FG-X, and FG-A are considered and the effective material parameters are calculated by Halpin-Tsai model. The nonlinear vibration equations are derived by Euler-Lagrange principle. Then the perturbation method is used to discretize the motion equations, and the loadings and displacement are all expanded, so as to obtain the first to third order perturbation equations, and then the asymptotic solution of the equations can be obtained. Then the nonlinear amplitude-frequency response is obtained with the help of the modified Lindstedt-Poincare method (Chen and Cheung 1996). Finally, the influences of the distribution types of GPLs, total GPLs layers, GPLs weight fraction, elastic foundations and boundary conditions on the resonance problems are comprehensively studied. Results show that the distribution types of GPLs, total GPLs layers, GPLs weight fraction, elastic foundations and boundary conditions have a significant effect on the nonlinear resonance response of FG-GPLRC beams.

Key Words
boundary conditions; elastic foundations; graphene platelet reinforced beams; Modified Lindstedt-Poincare method; non-linear vibration

Address
Hao-Xuan Ding, Yi-Wen Zhang and Gui-Lin She: College of Mechanical and Vehicle Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044, China

Abstract
A pre-cambered deep deck-plate system has been developed that can realize a long span by offsetting the deflection caused by a construction load. In this study, finite element (FE) analysis is performed to examine the preload-camber relationship introduced into a deck and calculate the deflection reflecting the ponding effect that arises during concrete pouring. The FE analysis results showed that the stress of the bottom plate was half of the yield stress when the pre-camber of approximately 30 mm was introduced. Based on the FE results, a full-scale deep deck-plate is fabricated, a pre-camber is introduced, and concrete is poured to measure deflection. A deflection calculation formula that reflects the ponding effect is proposed, and the deflections yielded by the proposed model, experimental results, and FE results are compared. Results show that the proposed model can accurately estimate the deflection of non-supported deep deck-plate systems after concrete is poured.

Key Words
camber; deep deck; deflection; ponding effect; preload

Address
Seung-Ho Choi, Inwook Heo: Department of Architectural Engineering, University of Seoul, 163 Siripdaero, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul, 02504, Korea
Khaliunaa Darkhanbat: Department of Architectural Engineering and Smart City Interdisciplinary Major Program, University of Seoul, 163 Siripdaero, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul, 02504, Korea
Sung-Mo Choi: Department of Architectural Engineering, University of Seoul, 163 Siripdaero, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul, 02504, Korea
Kang Su Kim: Department of Architectural Engineering and Smart City Interdisciplinary Major Program, University of Seoul, 163 Siripdaero, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul, 02504, Korea


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