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CONTENTS
Volume 5, Number 1, March 2020
 
All Articleed are Open Access

Abstract
This paper investigated vibrational behavior of the osteon as bone unit in the different situations. This study can lead to increase our knowledge of our body. In this paper free vibration of the osteon with considering it as composite material has been studied. The effect of numbers of lamellae and radius of those on natural frequency of osteon are subtle; while thickness of lamellae have decreasing trend on natural frequency of osteon. The presence of nerve and blood in haversian canal change trend of natural frequency, absolutely. Using the nonlocal strain gradient theory (NSGT) leads to effectiveness of scale parameter on equations of motion and the obtained results. The governing equations are derived by Hamilton\'s principles. A parametric study is presented to examine the effect of various parameters on vibrational behaviour of osteon. The results can also be regarded as a benchmark in vibration analysis behavior of osteon as bone unite.

Key Words
bone; lamellae; osteon; haversian sys; free vibration

Address
Farzad Ebrahimi and Farin Zokaee: Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin, Iran

Abstract
Total hip prosthesis is used for the patients who have hip fracture and are unable to recover naturally. To de-sign highly durable prostheses one has to take into account the natural processes occurring in the bone. Finite element analysis is a computer based numerical analysis method which can be used to calculate the response of a model to a set of well-defined boundary conditions. In this paper, the static load analysis is based, by se-lecting the peak load during the stumbling activity. Two different implant materials have been selected to study appropriate material. The results showed the difference of maximum von Misses stress and detected the frac-ture of the femur shaft for different model (Charnley and Osteal) implant with the extended finite element method (XFEM), and after the results of the numerical simulation of XFEM for different was used in deter-mining the stress intensity factors (SIF) to identify the crack behavior implant materials for different crack length. It has been shown that the maximum stress intensity factors were observed in the model of Charnley.

Key Words
totalhip prosthesis (THP); extended finite element method (XFEM); bone fracture; femur; stumbling; stress intensity factor (SIF)

Address
Zagane Mohammed El Sallah: Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Science Appliqué, University of Tiaret, City Zaaroura, BP 78, Tiaret, Algeria; Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Sidi Bel Abbes,
LMPM, BP 89, Cite Ben M\'hidi, Sidi Bel Abbes 22000, Algeria
Benouis Ali: Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Sidi Bel Abbes, LMPM, BP 89, Cite Ben M\'hidi, Sidi Bel Abbes 22000, Algeria; University of Moulay, Tahar Saida, City Ennasr, BP 138 20000 Saïda, Algeria
Sahli Abderahmen: Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Sidi Bel Abbes, LMPM, BP 89, Cité Ben M\'hidi, Sidi Bel Abbes 22000, Algeria

Abstract
We carry the knowledge that the skeleton bones of the human body are not always without defects and some various defects could occur in them. In the present paper, as the first endeavor, free vibration and buckling analysis of femur bones with femoral defects are investigated. A major strength of this study is the modeling of defects in femur bones. Materialise Mimics software is adopted to model the bone geometry and the SOLIDWORKS software is used to generate the defects in bones. Next, the ABAQUS software is employed to study the behaviors of bones with defects.

Key Words
femur bone; femoral defects; 3D non-homogeneous model; free vibration; buckling

Address
Saleh Mobasseri, Mehdi Sadeghi, Maziar Janghorban: Department of Mechanical Engineering, Marvdasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Marvdasht, Iran
Abdelouahed Tounsi: Material and Hydrology Laboratory, Faculty of Technology, Civil Engineering Department,
University of Sidi Bel Abbes, Algeria

Abstract
Development of lightweight implant plates are important to reduce the stress shielding effect for a prosthesis of femur bone fractures. Stainless steel (SS-316L) is a widely used material for making implants. Stress shielding effect and other issues arise due to the difference in mechanical properties of stainless steel when compared with bone. To overcome these issues, composite materials seem to be a better alternative solution. The comparison is made between two biocompatible composite materials, namely Ti-hydroxyapatite and Ti-polypropylene.

Key Words
fracture fixation plate; implant; composite; stress shielding effect; femur bone

Address
S. Ramakrishna and B. Pavani: Department of Mechanical Engineering, Gayatri Vidya Parishad College of Engineering (Autonomous), Madhurawada, Visakhapatnam-530048, Andhra Pradesh, India


Abstract
In this study, the mathematical model that describes blood cell development in the bone marrow (i.e., hematopoiesis) has been studied via the Homotopy Perturbation Method (HPM). The results from the present work compared very well with the numerical solutions from published literature. This work has shown that the HPM is viable for solving delay differential equations born from hematopoiesis problem. The influence of the proliferating cells loss rate, time delay rate and the phase re-entry rate on the population densities of both the proliferating and resting cells were also determined through the underlined procedure.

Key Words
blood cells; bone marrow; hematopoiesis; homotopy perturbation method; delay differential equations

Address
Theddeus T. Akano and Segun Adeyemi: Department of Systems Engineering, University of Lagos, Akoka, 101017, Lagos, Nigeria
Ephraim O. Nwoye: Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Lagos, Akoka, 101017, Lagos, Nigeria

Abstract
As conventional drug delivery system is being improved rapidly by target-based drug delivery system, finding suitable Drug Delivery System (DDS) for new drugs remains a challenge. Although there are many drug delivery vehicles in existence, a significant improvement is required to some DDS such as for local, implant-based treatments used for musculoskeletal infections. Many polymers have been considered for providing the improvement in DDS. Synthetic polymer, for example, has gained popularity for broad-spectrum physicochemical and mechanical properties. This article reviews the biomedical applications of Poly(TriMethylene Carbonate-co-Caprolactone) (PTMCC), which has attracted attention due to its biocompatibility, biodegradability and rubber-like properties. Its synthesis, physical properties, and degradation are also discussed here. Although it is relatively new in biomedical applications, it is readily usable for the fabrication of differing format of DDS of superior mechanical strength and degradation properties. The use of PTMCC is expected to increase in coming years as more is revealed about its potentials.

Key Words
biodegradable polymer; biomaterials; poly(trimethylene carbonate-co-caprolactone); DDS; bone disease

Address
Md. Sanower Hossain: Department of Biomedical Science, Kulliyyah of Allied Health Sciences, International Islamic University Malaysia, 25200 Kuantan, Malaysia
Farahidah Mohamed: Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Kulliyyah of Pharmacy, International Islamic University Malaysia, 25200 Kuantan, Malaysia; IKOP Sdn. Bhd., Kulliyyah of Pharmacy, International Islamic University Malaysia, 25200 Kuantan, Malaysia; Institute of Halal Research & Training (INHART), International Islamic University Malaysia, 50728 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Mohd Affendi Mohd Shafri: Institute of Halal Research & Training (INHART), International Islamic University Malaysia, 50728 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia


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