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Volume 9, Number 1, July 2020

In this work, the electrical potential (EP) technique with an artificial neural networks (ANNs) for monitoring of nanostructures are used for the first time. This study employs an expert system to identify size and localize hidden nano-delamination (N.Del) inside layers of nano-pipe (N.P) manufactured from Basalt Fiber Reinforced Polymer (BFRP) laminate composite by using low-cost monitoring method of electrical potential (EP) technique with an artificial neural networks (ANNs), which are combined to decrease detection effort to discern N.Del location/size inside the N.P layers, with high accuracy, simple and low-cost. The dielectric properties of the N.P material are measured before and after N.Del introduced using arrays of electrical contacts and the variation in capacitance values, capacitance change and node potential distribution are analyzed. Using these changes in electrical potential due to N.Del, a finite element (FE) simulation model for N.Del location/size detection is generated by ANSYS and MATLAB, which are combined to simulate sensor characteristic, therefore, FE analyses are employed to make sets of data for the learning of the ANNs. The method is applied for the N.Del monitoring, to minimize the number of FE analysis in order to keep the cost and save the time of the assessment to a minimum. The FE results are in excellent agreement with an ANN and the experimental results available in the literature, thus validating the accuracy and reliability of the proposed technique.

Key Words
nano pipes; nano-delamination monitoring; Electrical Capacitance Sensor (ECS); BFRP; FEM; ANNs

(1) Wael A. Altabey, Mohammad Noori, Ying Zhao:
International Institute for Urban Systems Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China;
(2) Wael A. Altabey:
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt;
(3) Wael A. Altabey, Ali Alarjani:
Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering in Alkharj, Prince Sattam Bin Abdelaziz University, Alkharj 11942, Saudi Arabia;
(4) Mohammad Noori:
Department of Mechanical Engineering, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, CA, USA.

Iron has a crucial role in growth as part of metalo-proteins like haemoglobin or myoglobin, enzymes; they are also involved in energetic reactions. Iron plays a vital role in fertility. At high doses, Iron has a harmful consequence on the reproductive system, which can be strongly reflected the final stage of spermatogenesis. Nutritional products are claiming to use nanotechnology and it is important to recognize the potential toxicity of nano-sized nutrients. Recently iron nanoparticles were proposed as a food additive for poultry. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of L-cystein coated iron oxide nanoparticles on reproductive performance in male quails. The results of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer, Alternating Gradient Force Magnetometer and Scaning Electron Microscopy showed that iron oxide nanoparticles was produced and have been coated with L-cycstein (Fe3O4-Cys NPs). A total of 100 one-week-old quail chicks were randomly placed to five groups of five replicates. Four quails (two male and two females) were raised in an individual cage for each replicate. The five experimental treatment diets consisted; negative control diet, with no Iron supplementation; positive control diet supplemented with 60 mg/kg of Fe3O4; treatment diets supplemented with 0.6, 6 and 60 mg/kg of L-cystein coated iron oxide nanoparticles. The hemoglobin, Red blood cell, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, gonadal somatic index, daily sperm production, total testicular sperm and sperm viability of the male quails that were fed with diet supplemented by 0.6 mg/kg of Fe3O4-Cys NPs were improved as compare with negative control. This study showed that not only the use of the Fe3O4-Cys nanoparticles had no side effects but also it can be used as a feed additive to improve the reproductive performance in male quails.

Key Words
hemoglobin; red blood cell; gonadal somatic index; daily sperm production; sperm viability; L-cysteine-coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles

Department of Animal Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Kurdistan, Post code 66177-15175, Sanandaj, Iran.

In this work, we report the use of caffeine as an alternative source of nitrogen to successfully dope graphene (quaternary 400.6 eV and pyridinic at 398 eV according XPS), as well as the growth of silver nanowires (in-situ) in the surface of nitrogen doped graphene (NG) sheets. We used the improved graphene oxide method (IGO), chemical reduction of graphene oxide (GOx), and impregnation with caffeine as source of nitrogen for doping and subsequently, silver nanowires (NW) grow in the surface by the reduction of silver salts in the presence of NG, achieving a numerous of growth of NW in the graphene sheets. As supporting experimental evidence, the samples were analyzed using conventional characterization techniques: SEM-EDX, XRD, FT-IR, micro RAMAN, TEM, and XPS.

Key Words
caffeine; nitrogen-doping; graphene; nanowires; functionalization; pyridinic; monolayer; synthesis; carbon nanostructures; nanomaterials

(1) Daniel Ramirez-Gonzalez:
Posgrado Fis. Mat. CU Valles, Universidad de Guadalajara, Carretera Guadalajara-Ameca Km. 45.5, 46600 Ameca Jalisco, México;
(2) José de J. Cruz-Rivera:
Instituto de Metalurgia, Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí, Sierra Leona 550, Lomas de San Luis, San Luis Potosí, México;
(3) Hugo Tiznado:
CNyN Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada km107, Playitas, 22860 Ensenada, Baja California, México;
(4) Ángel G. Rodriguez:
CIACYT-CARIEM, Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí, Av. Sierra Leona 550, Col. Lomas 2a., 78210 San Luis, San Luis Potosí, México;
(5) Iván Guillen-Escamilla:
Departamento de Ciencias Naturales y Exactas, CU Valles, Universidad de Guadalajara, Carretera Guadalajara-Ameca Km. 45.5, 46600 Ameca Jalisco, México;
(6) Adalberto Zamudio-Ojeda:
Departamento de Física, CUCEI, Universidad de Guadalajara, Blvd. Gral. Marcelino Garcia Barragán 1421, Olímpica, 44430 Guadalajara, Jalisco, México.

Geometrically nonlinear buckling of functionally graded magneto-electro-elastic (FG-MEE) nanoshells with the use of classical shell theory and nonlocal strain gradient theory (NSGT) has been analyzed in present research. Mathematical formulation based on NSGT gives two scale coefficients for simultaneous description of structural stiffness reduction and increment. Functional gradation of material properties is described based on power-law formulation. The nanoshell is under a multi-physical field related to applied voltage, magnetic potential, and mechanical load. Exerting a strong electric voltage, magnetic potential or mechanical load may lead to buckling of nanoshell. Taking into account geometric nonlinearity effects after buckling, the behavior of nanoshell in post-buckling regime can be analyzed. Nonlinear governing equations are reduced to ordinary equations utilizing Galerkin's approach and post-buckling curves are obtained based on an analytical procedure. It will be shown that post-buckling curves are dependent on nonlocal/strain gradient parameters, electric voltage magnitude and sign, magnetic potential magnitude and sign and material gradation exponent.

Key Words
post-buckling; classical shell theory; functionally graded material; magneto-electro-elastic material; nonlocal strain gradient theory

(1) Reza Asrari, Mohammad Mahdi Kheirikhah:
Faculty of Industrial and Mechanical Engineering, Qazvin Branch, Islamic Azad University, Qazvin, Iran;
(2) Farzad Ebrahimi:
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin, Iran.

The present paper deals with analyzing nonlinear forced vibrational behaviors of nonlocal multi-phase piezo-magnetic beam rested on elastic substrate and subjected to an excitation of elliptic type. The applied elliptic force may be presented as a Fourier series expansion of Jacobi elliptic functions. The considered multi-phase smart material is based on a composition of piezoelectric and magnetic constituents with desirable percentages. Additionally, the equilibrium equations of nanobeam with piezo-magnetic properties are derived utilizing Hamilton's principle and von-Kármán geometric nonlinearity. Then, an exact solution based on Jacobi elliptic functions has been provided to obtain nonlinear vibrational frequencies. It is found that nonlinear vibrational behaviors of the nanobeam are dependent on the magnitudes of induced electrical voltages, magnetic field intensity, elliptic modulus, force magnitude and elastic substrate parameters.

Key Words
forced vibration; piezo-magnetic material; nonlinear vibrations; piezoelectric reinforcement; nonlocal elasticity

(1) Seyed Sajad Mirjavadi, Masoud Forsat, A.M.S. Hamouda:
Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Qatar University, P.O. Box 2713, Doha, Qatar;
(2) Mohammad Nikookar:
Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran;
(3) Saeed Mollaee:
Auckland Bioengineering Institute, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand;
(4) Mohammad Reza Barati:
Fidar project Qaem Company, Darvazeh Dolat, Tehran, Iran.

Filter cake formation during rotary drilling operation is an unavoidable scenario, hence there is need for constant improvement in the approaches used in monitoring the cake thickness growth in order to prevent drill-string sticking. This study proposes an improved model that predicts the growth of mud cake thickness overtime with the consideration of the addition of nanoparticles in the formulated drilling fluid system. Ferric oxide, titanium dioxide and copper oxide nanoparticles were used in varying amounts (2 g, 4 g and 6 g), and filtration data were obtained from the HPHT filtration test. The filter cakes formed were further analyzed with scanning electron microscope to obtain the morphological characteristics. The data obtained was used to validate the new filtrate loss model. This model specifically presents the concept of time variation in filter cake formation as against the previous works of constant and definite time. Regression coefficient which is a statistical measure was used to validate the new model and the predicted results were compared with the API model. The new model showed R2 values of 99.9%, and the predictions from the proposed filtration model can be said to be more closely related to the experimental data than that predicted from the API model from the SSE and RMSE results.

Key Words
filtration model; aqueous mud system; nano particles; HPHT condition; filtrate volume; filter cake

(1) Emmanuel E. Okoro, Bukola R. Oladejo, Oyinkepreye D. Orodu:
Petroleum Engineering Department, Covenant University, Km. 10 Idiroko Road, Ota, Nigeria;
(2) Samuel E. Sanni:
Chemical Engineering Department, Covenant University, Km. 10 Idiroko Road, Ota, Nigeria;
(3) Tamunotonjo Obomanu:
Petroleum Engineering Department, Federal Polytechnic of Oil and Gas, Bonny Island, Nigeria;
(4) Amarachukwu A. Ibe:
Physics Department, Nigeria Maritime University, Okerenkoko, Nigeria;
(5) Olukunle C. Olawole:
Physics Department, Covenant University, Km. 10 Idiroko Road, Ota, Nigeria.

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