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Volume 15, Number 1, July 2023

Ti3C2Tx MXene, a 2D material, is known to exhibit unique characteristics that are strongly dependent on surface termination groups. Here, we developed a novel annealing approach with Ca as a reducing agent to simultaneously remove F and O groups from the surface of multilayered MXene powder. Unlike H2 annealing that removes F effectively but has difficulty in removing O, annealing with Ca effectively removed both O and F. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy revealed that the proposed approach effectively removed F and O from the MXene powder. The results of O/N analyses showed that the O concentration decreased by 57.5% (from 2.66 to 1.13 wt%). In addition, XPS fitting showed that the volume fraction of metal oxides (TiO2 and Al2O3) decreased, while surface termination groups (–O and –OH) were enhanced, which could increase the hydrophilic and adsorption properties of the MXene. These findings suggest that when F and O are removed from the MXene powder, the interlayer spacing of its lattice structure increases. The proposed treatment also resulted in an increase in the specific surface area (from 5.17 to 10.98 m2/g), with an increase in oxidation resistance temperature in air from ~436 to ~667 °C. The benefits of this novel technology were verified by demonstrating the significantly improved cyclic charge–discharge characteristics of a lithium-ion battery with a Ca-treated MXene electrode.

Key Words
deoxidation; lithium-ion battery; MXene; surface termination group; Ti3C2Tx

Jung-Min Ohamd Jikwang Chae: R&D center, INNOMXENE Co.,Ltd., 66, Daehwa-ro 106beon-gil, Daedeok-gu, Daejeon 34365, Republic of Korea

Su Bin Choi: Department of Smart Fab Technology, Sungkyunkwan University, 2066 Seobu-ro, Jangan-gu, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do 16419, Republic of Korea

Taeheon Kim, Jae-Won Lim and In-Seok Seo : School of Advanced Materials Engineering, Jeonbuk National University, 567 Baekje-daero, Deokjin-gu, Jeonju 54896, Republic of Korea

Hyeonsu Lim: Department of Strategy Planning, Jeonbuk Institute of Automotive Convergence Technology, 6,
Dongjansan 2-gil, Gunsan 54158, Republic of Korea

Jong-Woong Kim: Department of Smart Fab Technology, Sungkyunkwan University, 2066 Seobu-ro, Jangan-gu, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do 16419, Republic of Korea/ School of Mechanical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, 2066 Seobu-ro, Jangan-gu, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do 16419, Republic of Korea

Dynamics of protein filamentous has been an active area of research since the last few decades as the role of cytoskeletal components, microtubules, intermediate filaments and microfilaments is very important in cell functions. During cell functions, these components undergo the deformations like bending, buckling and vibrations. In the present paper, bending and buckling of microfilaments are studied by using Euler Bernoulli beam theory with nonlocal parametric effects in conjunction. The obtained results show that the nonlocal parametric effects are not ignorable and the applications of nonlocal parameters well agree with the experimental verifications.

Key Words
bending; buckling; euler bernoulli beam theory; microfilament; nonlocal effects

Muhammad Safeer and Muhammad Taj: Department of Mathematics, University of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Muzaffarabad 13100, Pakistan

Mohamed A. Khadimallah: Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering in Al-Kharj, Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University, Al-Kharj, 11942, Saudi Arabia

Muzamal Hussain: Department of Mathematics, Govt. College University Faisalabad, Faisalabad 38000, Pakistan

Saima Akram: Department of Mathematics, Govt. College Women University, Faisalabad, Faisalabad 38000, Pakistan/ Center for Advanced Studies in Pure and Applied Mathematics Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan, 60000, Pakistan

Faisal Mehmood Butt: Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Azad Jammu and Kashmir Muzaffarabad

Abdelouahed Tounsi: YFL (Yonsei Frontier Lab), Yonsei University, Seoul, Korea/ Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, 31261 Dhahran, Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia

This paper investigates the dynamics and stability of steady states in a continuous and discrete-time single-mode laser system. By using an explicit criteria we explored the Neimark-Sacker bifurcation of the single mode continuous and discrete-time laser model at its positive equilibrium points. Moreover, we discussed the parametric conditions for the existence of period-doubling bifurcations at their positive steady states for the discrete time system. Both types of bifurcations are verified by the Lyapunov exponents, while the maximum Lyapunov ensures chaotic and complex behaviour. Furthermore, in a three-dimensional discrete-time laser model, we used a hybrid control method to control period-doubling and Neimark-Sacker bifurcation. To validate our theoretical discussion, we provide some numerical simulations.

Key Words
chaos control; neimark-sacker bifurcation; period-doubling bifurcation; single-mode laser model; stability

Qamar Din, Waqas Ishaque and Iqra Maqsood: Departement of Mathematics, University of Poonch Rawalakot, Rawalakot 12350, Azad Kashmir, Pakistan

Abdelouahed Tounsi: Department of Civil Engineering, University of Sidi Bel, Abbes, 22000, Sidi Bel Abbes, Algeria

Nanoparticles are known for their outstanding properties such as particle size, surface area, optical and electrical properties. These properties have significantly boasted their applications in various surface phenomena. In this work, calcium oxide nanoparticles were synthesized from periwinkle shells as an approach towards waste management through resource recovery. The sol gel method was used for the synthesis. The nanoparticles were characterized using X-Ray diffractometer (XRD), Fourier Transformed Infra-Red Spectrophotometer (FTIR), Brunauer Emmett Teller (BET), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and ultra violet visible spectrophotometer (UV-visible). while DLS and SEM underestimate the particle diameter, the BET analysis reveals surface area of 138.998 m2/g, pore volume = 0.167 m3/g and pore diameter of 2.47 nm. The nanoparticles were also employed as an adsorbent for the purification of dye (methyl orange) contaminated water. The adsorbent showed excellent removal efficiency (up to 97 %) for the dye through the mechanism of physical adsorption. The adsorption of the dye fitted the Langmuir and Temkin models. Analysis of FTIR spectrum after adsorption complemented with computational chemistry modelling to reveal the imine nitrogen group as the site for the adsorption of the dye unto the nanomaterials. The synthesized nanomaterials have an average particle size of 24 nm, showed a unique XRD peak and is thermally and mechanically stable within the investigated temperature range (30 to 70 °C).

Key Words

Nnabuk Okon Eddy, Samson I. Eze and Favour Chijoke: Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria

Rajni Garg: Department of Applied Sciences, Galgotias College of Engineering & Technology, Greater Noida, Uttar Pradesh 201310, India

Rishav Garg: Department of Civil Engineering, Galgotias College of Engineering & Technology, Greater Noida, Uttar Pradesh 201310, India

Emeka Chima Ogoko and Henrietta Ijeoma Kelle: Department of Chemistry, National Open University of Nigeria, National Headquarter, Jabbi, Abuja, Nigeria

Richard Alexis Ukpe: Department of Chemistry, Federal University, Otuoke, Bayelsa State, Nigeria

Raphael Ogbodo: Department of Chemistry, University of Iowa, Iowa City, 52244 Iowa, USA

As composite materials are used in many applications, the modern world looks forward to significant progress. An overview of the application of composite fiber materials in sports equipment is provided in this article, focusing primarily on the advantages of these materials when applied to sports equipment, as well as an Analysis of the influence of sports equipment of fiber-reinforced composite material on social sports development. The present study investigated surface morphology and physical and mechanical properties of S-glass fiber epoxy composites containing Al2O3 nanofillers (for example, 1 wt%, 2 wt%, 3 wt%, 4 wt%). A mechanical stirrer and ultrasonication combined the Al2O3 nanofiller with the matrix in varying amounts. A compression molding method was used to produce sheet composites. A first physical observation is well done, which confirms that nanoparticles are deposited on the fiber, and adhesive bonds are formed. Al2O3 nanofiller crystalline structure was investigated by X-ray diffraction, and its surface morphology was examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM). In the experimental test, nanofiller content was added at a rate of 1, 2, and 3% by weight, which caused a gradual decrease in void fraction by 2.851, 2.533, and 1.724%, respectively, an increase from 2.7%. The atomic bonding mechanism shows molecular bonding between nanoparticles and fibers. At temperatures between 60 °C and 380 °C, Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) analysis shows that NPs deposition improves the thermal properties of the fibers and causes negligible weight reduction (percentage). Thermal stability of the composites was therefore presented up to 380 °C. The Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FTIR) spectrum confirms that nanoparticles have been deposited successfully on the fiber.

Key Words

Jian Li: Asset Management Office, Guangzhou Sport University, Guangzhou 510500, Guangdong, China

Ningjiang Bin:College of Physical Education, Guangdong University of Education, Guangzhou 510500, Guangdong, China

Fuqiang Guo: College of Physical Education, Yichun University, Yichun 336000, Jiangxi, China

Xiang Gao: Sport Training Institute, Guangzhou Sport University, Guangzhou 510500, Guangdong, China

Renguo Chen: Physical Education Section, Dongguan NO.10 Senior High School, Dongguan 523981, Guangdong, China

Hongbin Yao: School of Humanities and Social Science, Shunde Polytechnic, Foshan 528333, Guangdong, China

Chengkun Zhou: Graduate school, Guangzhou Sport University, Guangzhou 510500, Guangdong, China

In this present article, the mechanical behavior of single-walled black phosphorene nanotubes (SW-αPNTs) is simulated using molecular dynamics (MD). The proposed model is subjected to the axial loading and the effects of morphological parameters, such as the mono-vacancy defect and strain rate on the tensile behavior of the zigzag and armchair SW-αPNTs are studied as a pioneering work. In order to assess the accuracy of the MD simulations, the stress-strain response of the current MD model is successfully verified with the efficient quantum mechanical approach of the density functional theory (DFT). Along with reproducing the DFT results, the accurate MD simulations successfully anticipate a significant variation in the stress-strain curve of the zigzag SW-αPNTs, namely the knick point. Predicting such mechanical behavior of SW-αPNTs may be an important design factor for lithium-ion batteries, supercapacitors, and energy storage devices. The simulations show that the ultimate stress is increased by increasing the diameter of the pristine SW-αPNTs. The trend is identical for the ultimate strain and stress-strain slope as the diameter of the pristine zigzag SW-αPNTs enlarges. The obtained results denote that by increasing the strain rate, the ultimate stress/ultimate strain are respectively increased/declined. The stress-strain slope keeps increasing as the strain rate grows. It is worth noting that the existence of mono-atomic vacancy defects in the (12,0) zigzag and (0,10) armchair SW-αPNT structures leads to a drop in the tensile strength by amounts of 11.1% and 12.5%, respectively. Also, the ultimate strain is considerably altered by mono-atomic vacancy defects.

Key Words
DFT; energy storage devices; knick point; mono-vacancy defect; single-walled beta phosphorene nanotubes; strain rate; molecular dynamics

Hooman Esfandyari, AliReza Setoodeh and Hamed Badjian: Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Shiraz University of Technology, Shiraz 71555, Iran

Hamed Farahmand: Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kerman Branch, Islamic Azad University, Kerman, Iran

Greg Wheatley: College of Science and Engineering, James Cook University, Townsville QLD Australia

The combination of physical activities and individual skills in sports creates an entertaining and competitive environment governed by a set of rules. In today's world, sports attract significant attention and are approached differently by various groups. Inevitably, injuries occur in sports, significantly impacting an athlete's performance and ability to participate in exercises and competitions. Addressing this issue, one of the crucial measures involves restoring the athlete's ability to engage in sports and compete. Sports rehabilitation serves as a treatment to mitigate the effects of injuries, and when combined with surgery, it can expedite the recovery process. Therefore, the primary objective of this study is to utilize a biocompatible technology for synthesizing zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles in sports rehabilitation, ensuring minimal harm to the environment.

Key Words
athlete; injuries; nanoparticles; rehabilitation; sports

Zhichao Ma and Yaonan Li: School of Physical Education, Wuhan Business University, Wuhan 430056, Hubei, China/ Equine Science Research and Horse Doping Control Laboratory, Wuhan Business University, Wuhan 430056, Hubei, China

Jie Qi: Physical Education College, Shanghai Normal University, Shanghai 200234, China

Weiwei Xun: School of Sports Medicine, Wuhan Sports University, Wuhan 430079, Hubei, China

In this paper, Bishop theory performs longitudinal vibration analysis of Nano-beams. Its governing equation, due to integrated displacement field and more considered primarily effects compared with other theories, enjoys fully completed status, and more reliable results as well. This article aims to find how Bishop theory and Two-phase elasticity work together. In other words, whether Bishop theory will be compatible with Two-phase local/nonlocal elasticity. Hamilton's principle is employed to derive governing equation of motion, and then the 6th order of Generalized Differential Quadrature Method (GDQM) as a constructive numerical method is utilized to attain the discretized two-phase formulation. To acquire a proper verification procedure, exact solution is prepared to be compared with current results. Furthermore, the effects of key parameters on the objective are investigated.

Key Words
axial vibration; bishop theory; generalised differential quadrature method (GDQM); nano-beams; two-phase local/nonlocal elasticity

Reza Nazemnezhad and Roozbeh Ashrafian: School of Engineering, Damghan University, Damghan, Iran

Alireza Mirafzal: Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan, Iran

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