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CONTENTS
Volume 13, Number 6, December 2022
 


Abstract
In this study, it was aimed to evaluate direct oxidation of aqueous solution containing cefalexin antibiotic with new generation Sn/Sb/Ni: 500/8/1 anode. The fact that there is no such a study on treatment of cefalexin with these new anode made this study unique. According to the operating parameters evaluation COD graphs showed clearer results compared to TOC and CLX and thus, it was it was chosen as major parameter. Furthermore, pseudo-first degree kd values were calculated from CLX results to show more accurate and specific results. Experimental results showed that after 60 min of electrochemical oxidation, complete removal of COD and TOC was accomplished with 750 mg L-1 KCl, at pH 7, 50 mA cm-2 current density and 1 cm anode-cathode distance. Also, the stability of the Sn/Sb/Ni anode was evaluated by taking SEM and AFM images and XRD analysis before and after of electrochemical oxidation processes. According to the results, it was not occurred too much change on the anode surface even after 300 h of electrolysis. Thus, it was thought that the anode material was not corroded to a large extent. Furthermore, the removal efficiencies were very high for almost all the time and conditions. According to the results of the study, electrochemical oxidation with new generation Sn/Sb/Ni anodes for the removal of cefalexin antibiotic was found very successful and applicable due to require less reaction time complete mineralization and doesn't require pH adjustment step compared to other studies in literature. In future studies, different antibiotic types should be studied with this anode and maybe with real wastewaters to test applicability of the process in treatment of pharmaceutical wastewaters containing antibiotics, in a better way.

Key Words
anode stability; cefalexin; current density; electrochemical oxidation; Sn/Sb/Ni anode

Address
Ayşe Kurt: Central Research Laboratory for the Scientific and Technological Supports, Bursa Uludag University, Gorukle Campus, 16059, Bursa, Turkey

Hande Helvacioğlu and Taner Yonar: Environmental Engineering department, Bursa Uludag University, Faculty of Engineering,
Gorukle Campus, Bursa 16059, Turkey


Abstract
A novel, green, versatile and magnetically retrievable BiFeO3/CDR (Bismuth ferrite/ coriander) nanocomposites were fabricated via simple wet chemical method utilizing in situ functionalized, cheap coriander seed powder (CDR 5%, 10%, 15% and 20 wt%) as a fuel to enhance the efficiency of pristine BiFeO3. A comparative study was performed between BiFeO3/CDR and BiFeO3/CNT (Bismuth ferrite/carbon nanotubes) nanocomposites for the removal of various hazardous pollutants from waste water. The successful synthesis of the fabricated nanomaterials was monitored via FT-IR, Powder XRD, FE-SEM, CV, VSM, CHNS/O and XPS studies. The synthesized nanomaterials were employed for the oxidative degradation of Carbol fuchsin, Reactive black 5, Ciprofloxacin and Doxorubicin; adsorption of a pesticide malathion; and reduction studies for Para-nitrophenol (PNP). The fabricated nanomaterials (BiFeO3/CDR) showcased excellent efficiency and comparable results with (BiFeO3/CNT) for the removal of model pollutants. Moreover, synthesized green heterojunction was also testified for mixture of textile and pharmaceutical waste. Hence CDR can be utilized as a better alternative of CNTs.

Key Words
adsorption; Bismuth ferrite; CNTs; eco-friendly alternative; graphite; oxidative degradation; reduction; water treatment

Address
Deepeka, Paramdeep Kaur, Jyoti and Sonal Singhal: Department of Chemistry, Panjab University, Chandigarh, 160014, India

Sandeep Bansal: Department of Science and Technology, New Delhi, India

Abstract
This paper studies the buckling response of nonuniform functionally graded micro-sized tubes according to the high-order tube theory (HOTT) and classical beam theory (CBT) in addition to nonlocal strain gradient theory. The microtube is made of axially functionally graded material (AFGM). Both inner and outer tube radiuses are changed along the tube length; the microtube is the truncated conical type of tube. The nonlinear partial differential (PD) the formulations are obtained on the basis of the energy conservation method. Then, the linear and nonlinear results are computed via a powerful numerical approach. Finally, the impact of various parameters on the stability of axially functionally graded (AFG) microtube regarding the buckling analysis is discussed.

Key Words
buckling analysis; functionally graded materials; microstructure; nonuniform tubes; stability analysis

Address
Linyun Zhou: School of Transportation, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096, Jiangsu, China

Abstract
The stability of protein tissues and protein fibers in the human muscle is investigated in the presented paper. The protein fibers are modeled via tube structures embedded in others proteins fibers like the elastic substrate. Physical sport and physical exercise play an important role in the stability of synthesis and strength of the protein tissues. In physical exercise, the temperature of the body increases, and this temperature change impacts the stability of the protein tissues, which is the aim of the current study. The mathematical simulation of the protein tissues is done based on the mechanical sciences, and the protein fibers are modeled via wire structures according to the high-order theory beams. The thermal stress due to the conditions of the sport is applied to the nanoscale protein fibers, then the stability regarding the frequency analysis is investigated. Finally, the impact of temperature change, physical exercise, and small-scale parameters on the stability of the protein tissues are examined in detail.

Key Words
thermal impact; small-scale tissues; stability analysis; protein tissues

Address
Xin Fang and Mengqian Hou: School of the arts, Xi'an 710068, Shaanxi, China

Abstract
Due to its biofilm formation and colonization of the osteocyte-lacuno canalicular network (OLCN), Staphylococcus aureus (S.aureus) implant-associated bone infection (SIABI) is difficult to cure thoroughly, and may occur recurrently subsequently after a long period dormant. It is essential to explore an alternative therapeutic strategy that can eradicate the pathogens in the infected foci. To address this, the polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement and Fe3O4 nanoparticles compound cylinder were developed as implants based on their size and mechanical properties for the alternative magnetic field (AMF) induced thermal ablation, The PMMA mixed with optimized 2% Fe3O4 nanoparticles showed an excellent antibacterial efficacy in vitro. It was evaluated by the CFU, CT scan and histopathological staining on a rabbit 1-stage transtibial screw model. The results showed that on week 7, the CFU of infected soft tissue and implants, and the white blood cells (WBCs) of the PMMA+2% Fe3O4+AMF group decreased significantly from their controls (p<0.05). PMMA+2% Fe3O4+AMF group did not observe bone resorption, periosteal reaction, and infectious reactive bone formation by CT images. Further histopathological H&E and Gram Staining confirmed there was no obvious inflammatory cell infiltration, neither pathogens residue nor noticeably burn damage around the infected screw channel in the PMMA+2% Fe3O4+AMF group. Further investigation of nanoparticle distributions in bone marrow medullary and vital organs of heart, liver, spleen, lung, and kidney. There were no significantly extra Fe3O4 nanoparticles were observed in the medullary cavity and all vital organs either. In the current study, PMMA+2% Fe3O4+AMF shows promising therapeutic potential for SIABI by providing excellent mechanical support, and promising efficacy of eradicating the residual pathogenic bacteria in bone infected lesions.

Key Words
biofilm; bone infection; Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles; OLCN; Staphylococcus aureus

Address
Youliang Ren, Jin Yang, Xiao Yang, Lei Shi, Zhongliang Deng and Lei Chu: Department of Orthopaedics, Second Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, 76 Linjiang Road, Yuzhong Distinct, Chongqing, 400010, P. R. China

Jinghui Zhang: Key Laboratory of Diagnostic Medicine designated by the Ministry of Education, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Chongqing Medical University Chongqing, Yuzhong Distinct, 400016, P. R. China

Dajing Guo: Department of Radiology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, 76 Linjiang Road, Yuzhong Distinct, Chongqing, 400010, P. R. China

Yuanyi Zheng: Shanghai Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People's Hospital, 600 Yishan Road, Xuhui Distinct, Shanghai, 200233, P. R. China

Haitao Ran: Chongqing Key Laboratory of Ultrasound Molecular Imaging, Second Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, 76 Linjiang Road, Yuzhong Distinct, Chongqing, 400010, P. R. China

Abstract
In the present study, a novel optimization method in formation control of multi -system vehicles based on the trajectory of the nearest neighbor trajectory is presented. In this regard, the state equations of each vehicle and multisystem is derived and the optimization scheme based on minimizing the differences between actual positions and desired positions of the vehicles are conducted. This formation control is a position-based decentralized model. The trajectory of the nearest neighbor are optimized based on the current position and state of the vehicle. This approach aids the whole multi-agent system to be optimized on their trajectory. Furthermore, to overcome the cumulative errors and maintain stability in the network a semi-centralized scheme is designed for the purpose of checking vehicle position to its predefined trajectory. The model is implemented in Matlab software and the results for different initial state and different trajectory definition are presented. In addition, to avoid collision avoidance and maintain the distances between vehicles agents at a predefined desired distances. In this regard, a neural fuzzy network is defined to be utilized in conjunction with the control system to avoid collision between vehicles. The outcome reveals that the model has acceptable stability and accuracy.

Key Words
formation control; multi-system vehicle; nearest neighbor; optimization

Address
Mingxia Huang and Ning Gao: School of Transportation and Geomaitics Engineering, Shenyang Jianzhu University, Shenyang 110168, Liaoning, China

Yangyong Liu: College of Intelligent Manufacturing and Automotive, Chongqing Vocational College of Transportation, Jiangjin 402247, Chongqing, China

Tao Yang: China railway Shenyang Bureau Group Co., Ltd, Shenyang, 110000, Liaoning, China

Abstract
In the present research, for the first time, the vibrational as well as buckling characteristics of a three-layered curved nanobeam including a core made of functionally graded (FG) material and two layers of smart material—piezo-magneto-electric—resting on a Winkler Pasternak elastic foundation are examined. The displacement field for the nanobeam is chosen via Timoshenko beam theory. Also, the size dependency is taken into account by using nonlocal strain gradient theory, aka NSGT. Then, by employing Hamilton's principle, energy procedure, the governing equations together with the boundary conditions are achieved. The solution procedure is a numerical solution called generalized differential quadrature method, or GDQM. The accuracy and reliability of the formulation alongside solution method is examined by using other published articles. Lastly, the parameter which can alter and affect the buckling or vocational behavior of the curved nanobeam is investigated in details.

Key Words
big data analysis; complex nanosystems; computer and semi numerical simulations; dynamic responses

Address
Allam Maalla: School of Engineering, Guangzhou College of Technology and business, Guangzhou 510850, Guangdong, China

Xiaoping Huang and Hongkai Zhou: Guilin University of Technology at Nanning, Nanning 532100, Guangxi, China


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