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Volume 6, Number 4, December 2017

In this paper, an improved theoretical solution for interfacial stress analysis is presented for simply supported concrete beam bonded with a sandwich FGM plate. Interfacial stress analysis is presented for simply supported concrete beam bonded with a sandwich plate. This improved solution is intended for application to beams made of all kinds of materials bonded with a thin plate, while all existing solutions have been developed focusing on the strengthening of reinforced concrete beams, which allowed the omission of certain terms. It is shown that both the normal and shear stresses at the interface are influenced by the material and geometry parameters of the composite beam. A numerical parametric study was performed for different simulated cases to assess the effect of several parameters. Numerical comparisons between the existing solutions and the present new solution enable a clear appreciation of the effects of various parameters. The results of this study indicated that the FGM sandwich panel strengthening systems are effective in enhancing flexural behavior of the strengthened RC beams.

Key Words
RC beam; sandwich plate; interfacial stresses; strengthening; functionally graded material

(1) Abdebasset Chedad, Tahar Hassaine Daouadji, Rabahi Abderezak, Benferhat Rabia:
Département de génie civil, Université Ibn Khaldoun Tiaret; BP 78 Zaaroura, Tiaret, Algérie;
(2) Abdebasset Chedad, Tahar Hassaine Daouadji, Rabahi Abderezak, Adim Belkacem, Benferhat Rabia:
Laboratoire de Géomatique et Développement Durable, Université de Tiaret, Algérie;
(3) Boussad Abbes, Fazilay Abbes:
Laboratoire GRESPI—Campus du Moulin de la Housse, Reims Cedex 2, France;
(4) Adim Belkacem:
Département des sciences et technologies, Centre Universitaire Tissemsilt, Algérie.

The challenge of replacing conventional plastics with biodegradable composite materials has attracted much attention in product design, particularly in the tensile-related areas of application. In this study, fibres extracted from oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) were treated and utilized in reinforcing polyester matrix by hand lay-up technique. The effect of fibre loading and combined influence of alkali and silane treatments on porosity and water absorption parameters, and its correlation with the tensile behaviour of composites was analyzed. The results showed that tensile strength decreased whilst modulus of elasticity, water absorption and porosity parameters increased with increasing fibre loading. The composites of treated oil palm EFB fibre exhibited improved values of 2.47 MPa to 3.78 MPa for tensile strength; 1.75 MPa to 2.04 MPa for modulus of elasticity; 3.43% to 1.68% for porosity and 3.51% to 3.12% for water absorption at respective 10 wt.% fibre loadings. A correlation between porosity and water absorption with tensile behavior of composites of oil palm EFB fibre and positive effect of fibre treatment was established, which clearly demonstrate a connection between processing and physical properties with tensile behavior of fibre composites. Accordingly, a further exploitation of economic significance of oil palm EFB fibres composites in areas of low-to-medium tensile strength application is inferred

Key Words
tensile strength; porosity; water absorption; fruit bunch; composite

(1) Anthony N. Anyakora:
Department of Mechanical/Mechatronic Engineering, Federal University, Ndufu-Alike, Ikwo, P.M.B. 1010, Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria;
(2) Oladiran K. Abubakre, Edeki Mudiare:
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Federal University of Technology, P.M.B. 65, Minna, Niger State, Nigeria;
(3) MAT Suleiman:
Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Technology, P.M.B. 65, Minna, Niger State, Nigeria.

High-pressure gas atomization was employed to prepare the Fe-based Fe50Cr24Mo21Si2B3 alloy powder. The effect of flow rate of atomizing gas on the median powder diameter was studied. The results show that the powder size decreased with increasing the flow rate of atomizing gas. Fe-based alloy coatings with amorphous phase fraction was then prepared by high velocity oxygen fuel spraying (HVOF) of gas atomized Fe50Cr24Mo21Si2B3 powder. Microstructural studies show that the coatings present dense layered structure and low porosity of 0.17% in about 200

Key Words
alloy; coatings; HVOF; gas atomization; powder

(1) Joseph Lik Hang Chau, Chih-Chao Yang:
Materials and Chemical Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Tainan City, Taiwan;
(2) Alfred I-Tsung Pan:
Strategy and R&D Plan Office, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Hsinchu, Taiwan.

The nonlinear thermal buckling load parameter of the laminated composite panel structure is investigated numerically using the higher-order theory including the stretching effect through the thickness and presented in this research article. The large geometrical distortion of the curved panel structure due to the elevated thermal loading is modeled via Green-Lagrange strain field including all of the higher-order terms to achieve the required generality. The desired solutions are obtained numerically using the finite element steps in conjunction with the direct iterative method. The concurrence of the present nonlinear panel model has been established via adequate comparison study with available published data. Finally, the effect of different influential parameters which affect the nonlinear buckling strength of laminated composite structure are examined through numerous numerical examples and discussed in details.

Key Words
laminated composite curved panel; HSDT; Green-Lagrange strain; thermal buckling; FEM

(1) Pankaj V. Katariya, Subrata K. Panda:
National Institute of Technology Rourkela, Rourkela 769008, Odisha, India;
(2) Trupti R. Mahapatra:
Veer Surendra Sai University of Technology (VSSUT), Burla 768018, Odisha, India.

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