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Volume 12, Number 4, December 2023

In this study, AA1060/Alumina composites were fabricated by combined stir casting and accumulative press bonding (APB). The APB process was repeated up to six press bonding steps at 300Ċ. As the novelty, potential dynamic polarization in 3.5Wt% NaCl solution was used to study the corrosion properties of these composites. The corrosion behavior of these samples was compared and studied with that of the annealed aluminum alloy 1060 and versus the number of APB steps. So, as a result of enhancing influence on the number of APB process, this experimental investigation showed a significant enhancement in the main electrochemical parameters and the inert character of the Alumina particles. Together with Reducing the active zones of the material surfaces could delay the corrosion process. Also, at higher number of steps, the corrosion resistance of composites improved. The sample produced after six number of steps had a low corrosion density in comparison with high corrosion density of annealed specimens. Also, the scanning electron microscopy (SEM), was used to study the corrosion surface of samples.

Key Words
accumulative press bonding (APB); corrosion; pitting corrosion; polarization

Abdalkareem Jasim: Al-maarif University College, Medical Laboratory Techniques Department, Al-anbar-Ramadi, Iraq
Ghassan Fadhil Smaisim: Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Kufa, Iraq; Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials Research Unit, Faculty of Engineering, University of Kufa, Iraq
Abduladheem Turki Jalil: Faculty of Biology and Ecology, Yanka Kupala State University of Grodno, 230023 Grodno, Belarus; College of Technical Engineering, The Islamic University, Najaf, Iraq
Surendar Aravindhan: Department of Pharmacology, Saveetha Dental College and Hospital, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, India
Abdullah Hasan Jabbar: Optical Department, College of Medical and Health Technology, Sawa University, Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research, Al-Muthanaa, Samawah, Iraq
Shaymaa Abed Hussein: Al-Manara College for Medical Sciences, Maysan, Iraq
Muneam Hussein Ali: Al-Nisour University College, Baghdad, Iraq
Muataz S. Alhassan; Division of Advanced Nano Material Technologies, Scientific Research Center, Al-Ayen University, Thi-Qar, Iraq
Yasser Fakri Mustafa: Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, College of Pharmacy, University of Mosul, Mosul-41001, Iraq

The fracture mechanics make it possible to characterize the behavior with cracking of structures using parameters quantifiable in the sense of the engineer, in particular the stress field, the size of the crack, and the resistance to cracking of the material. Any structure contains defects, whether they were introduced during the production of the part (machining or molding defects for example). The aim of this work is to determine numerically by the finite element method the stress concentration factor Kt of a plate subjected to a tensile loading containing a lateral form defect with different sizes: a semicircle of different radii, a notch with different opening angles and a crack of different lengths. The crack propagation is then determined using the extended finite element technique (X-FEM). The modeling was carried out using the ABAQUS calculation code.

Key Words
crack; finite element method; stress concentration factor Kt; X-FEM

Zagane Mohammed El Sallah, Moulgada Abdelmadjid: Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Tiaret, City Zaâroura BP 78, Tiaret 14000, Algeria; Laboratory LMPM, University of Sidi Bel Abbes, BP 89, City Ben Mhidi, SidiBel Abbes 22000, Algeria
Sahli Abderahmane: Laboratory LMPM, University of Sidi Bel Abbes, BP 89, City Ben Mhidi, SidiBel Abbes 22000, Algeria
Baltach Abdelghani: Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Tiaret, City Zaâroura BP 78, Tiaret 14000, Algeria
Benouis Ali: Laboratory LMPM, University of Sidi Bel Abbes, BP 89, City Ben Mhidi, SidiBel Abbes 22000, Algeria; University of Moulay, TaharSaida, City Ennasr, BP 138 20000 Saïda, Algeria

The main objective of this article is to highlight the progress made in the development of new materials that have been gradually used by humans until today. Of course, this progress must be associated with other parameters in order to guarantee sustainable development. For this, today, it has become urgent to reduce the consumption of cement by resorting to its partial or total replacement by other similar materials in order to reduce CO2 emissions in our environment. This should certainly help to develop greener building materials. In this study, it was decided to proceed with the partial or total replacement of Portland cement type CEM II/B-L-42.5N by slate and lime that had not undergone any previous transformation. The results obtained revealed that the mortar whose substitution compared to the replacement of cement (100%) cement and sand (0/4) confers better kinetics than those of the series composed of (100%) cement and fraction rubble (0/1).

Key Words
clay; ecological cement; lime; mechanical and physical tests; mortar; slate; substitution

Tedjeddine Bendisari, Feriel Tires, Assma L. Mazouzi: Department of Civil Engineering and Public Works Faculty of Technology, Djillali Liabes University, B P 89 Sidi Bel Abbes, Algeria
Lynda A. Chaabane: Physical-Chemistry of Advanced Materials Laboratory (LPCMA), Department of Civil Engineering and Public Works Faculty of Technology, Djillali Liabes University, B P 89 Sidi Bel Abbes, Algeria
Wissam Y. Bouayed: Department of Architecture and Urban Planning, Oran University, Algeria; The Higher School of Architecture of Brittany, 35064 Rennes, France
Abderrahman Lalimi, Kadid Moufek: Department of Civil Engineering and Public Works Faculty of Technology, Djillali Liabes University, B P 89 Sidi Bel Abbes, Algeria

The humid thermal vibration characteristics of a nonhomogeneous thermopiezoelectric nonlocal plate of polygonal shape are addressed in the purview of generalized nonlocal thermoelasticity. The plate is initially stressed, and the three-dimensional linear elasticity equations are taken to form motion equations. The problem is solved using the Fourier expansion collocation method along the irregular boundary conditions. The numerical results of physical variables have been discussed for the triangle, square, pentagon, and hexagon shapes of the plates and are given as dispersion curves. The amplitude of non-dimensional frequencies is tabulated for the longitudinal and flexural symmetric modes of the thermopiezoelectric plate via moisture and thermal constants. Also, a comparison of numerical results is made with existing literature, and good agreement is reached.

Key Words
humidity; nonlocal stress-strain relation; piezoelectric resonator plate; polygonal shape

Rajendran Selvamani, Hepzibah Christinal: Department of Mathematics, Karunya Institute of Technology and Sciences, Coimbatore-641114, Tamilnadu, India
Farzad Ebrahimi: Department of Mechanical Engineering, Imam Khomieni International University, Qazvin 34148-96818, Iran

Foam concrete can be considered as environmental friendly material due to its low weight, its minimal cost and a possibility to add waste materials in its production. This paper investigates the possibility of producing foam concrete with waste glass as powder and aggregate. Then, the effect of using waste glass on strength and drying shrinkage of foam concrete was examined. Also, the effect of incorporating polypropylene fibers (12 mm length and proportion of 0.5% of a mix volume) on distribution of waste glass as coarse particles within 1200 kg/m3 foam concrete mixes was evaluated. Waste glass was used as powder (20% of cement weight), as coarse particles (25%, 50% and 100% instead of sand volume) and as fine particles (25% instead of sand volume). From the results, the problem of non-uniform distribution of coarse glass particles was successfully solved by adding polypropylene fibers. It was found that using of waste glass as coarse aggregate led to reduce the strength of foam concrete mixes. However, using it with polypropylene fibers in combination helped in increasing the strength by about 29- 50% for compressive and 55- 71% for splitting tensile and reducing the drying shrinkage by about (31- 40%). In general, not only the fibers role but also the uniformly distributed coarse glass particles helped in improving and enhancing the strength and shrinkage of the investigated foam concrete mixes.

Key Words
fibers; foam concrete; particles distribution; recycled waste glass; shrinkage; strength

Mayada A. Kareem and Ameer A. Hilal: Civil Engineering Department, College of Engineering, University of Anbar, Ramadi, Iraq

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