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Volume 11, Number 1, March 2022

Amongst 27 isolates from deteriorated leather samples, Arthrobacter creatinolyticus KP015744 zzx28 was found to be an efficient collagenase producer. Collagenase production of 13.33 umoles/min was shown at an optimum temperature at 37C after 72h and at pH 7.5 by using 2 ml/dL inoculum in 10 mg/ml collagen peptide type I as a substrate. In presence of Hg2+, EDTA and B-mercaptoethanol the collagenase production by the isolate was strongly inhibited however Fe2+, Ca2+and DMSO enhanced production of the enzyme. Specific activity was found to be 19.46X103 U/mg and molecular weight 66 kD by SDS PAGE. Isolate also has potential to hydrolyze keratin which is another important protein found in leather. Experimental results propose that collagenase can be effectively used as a tool for collagen and keratin rich solid waste treatment.

Key Words
collagen peptide type I; dialysis; EDTA; feather meal; leather; metalloprotease

Savita A. Kate: Department of Biotechnology, Shivchhatrapati College, Aurangabad-431001, M.S., India
Madhuri Sahasrabudhe: Department of Microbiology Maulana Azad College of Arts, Science and Commerce,
Aurangabad- 431001, M.S., India
Archana Pethe: Department of Microbiology, Shivaji College of Arts, Commerce and Science, Akola-444001, M.S., India

Road transport allows all forms of land conditions to be met at less cost. Because of this function, despite numerous disadvantages, it becomes the most frequently used method of transport, especially in underdeveloped or developing countries. One of the most significant factors used in evaluating the atmosphere's air quality is the amount of CO2, increasing people's density in indoor spaces. The amount of CO2 indoors is, therefore, vital to determine. In this study, CO2 and temperature measurements made on nine different bus journey was made in Turkey. The minimum and maximum values were recorded as 555 ppm and 3000 ppm CO2, respectively, in the measurements. On all journeys, the average concentration is 1088.72 ppm. The minimum and maximum values were measured as 17.4oC and 32.7 C in the temperature measurements, and the average of all trips was calculated to be 25.76 C. In this study conducted before the Covid-19 pandemic, it was determined that the amount of CO2 increased with the density and insufficient ventilation in the buses. The risk of infection increases in places with high human density and low clean air. For situations such as pandemics, CO2 measurement is a rapid indicator of determining human density.

Key Words
bus; CO2; indoor air quality; intercity transport; temperature

Kazim O. Demirarslan: Artvin Çoruh University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Environmental Engineering, Artvin, Turkey
Serden Basak: Kütahya Health Sciences University, Faculty of Health Sciences,
Department of Health Management, Kütahya, Turkey

The current observational epidemiological study analyzed blood lead levels (BLLs) in occupationally exposed workers from Riyadh region, Saudi Arabia and correlated them with the alterations in the differential cell populations of the WBC panel (lymphocytes [Lym %], mixed [Mid %] cells, and neutrophils [Neu %]). In addition, we examined the effect of confounding factors and their relation to BLLs. BLLs were estimated using the LeadCare II analyzer and hematological parameters using the ADVIA 120 analyser. An inferential analysis was conducted to detect association between the observations and the subjects' clinical characateristics. A total of 132 male subjects were included in the final analyses. Based on CDC guidelines, the subjects were categorized as Group I (BLL <10 ug/dL; n=118) or Group II (BLL >10 ug/dL; n=14) with average BLLs of 4.4 ug/dL and 18.1 ug/dL, respectively (p <0.0001). The percentages of Mid cells (p <0.0001) and neutrophils (p=0.048), were significantly altered in subjects with High BLL. A regression analysis indicated that subjects > 50 years of age had significantly higher BLLs (53.2 ug/dL) than younger age sub-groups (p <0.0001). Age, education, and profession were significant predictors for lead toxicity. Pb exposure is a major public health issue in Saudi Arabia and calls for further investigations on the cellular and molecular effects on hematological system.

Key Words
BLL; confounding factors; differential leucocyte counts; occupational lead exposure

Abjal P. Shaik, Abbas H. Alsaeed, Asma S. Shaik and Abdullah A. Alyousef: Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences,
King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Vamsee K. Bammidi: The Unicare Group, Burton-on-Trent, Staffordshire, United Kingdom
Kiranmaye Sampathirao: Alrewas Surgery, Burton-on-Trent, Staffordshire, United Kingdom

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