Techno Press
Tp_Editing System.E (TES.E)
Login Search


You have a Free online access.
acc
 
CONTENTS
Volume 9, Number 6, June 2020
 

Abstract
The current study investigated experimentally the effectiveness of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) in confining concrete cylinders after being subjected to high temperature. Parameters examined were: (a) the exposing temperatures (20, 100, 200, 400 600and 700oC) and (b) the number of CFRP layers (1 and 3 layers). A uniaxial compressive testing was carried out on 36 concrete cylinders with dimensions of 150 mmx300 mm. The results obtained show that the compressive strength reduced with the increased of temperature compared to that measured at 20oC. In particular, the reduction in the compressive strength was more observed when the temperature exceeded 400oC. Further, the concrete cylinders confined with one and three layers of CFRP significantly increased the compressive strength compared to the counterpart unconfined specimen tested at the same temperature. Also, the average percentages of the increase in the compressive strength were approximately 112% and 158% when applying 1 and 3 layers of CFRP, respectively, compared to the counterpart unstrengthened specimen tested at the same temperature.

Key Words
concrete cylinders; confining; CFRP; high temperatures

Address
Saad M. Raoof, Omer F. Ibraheem and Abdulla S. Tais: Department of Civil Engineering, University of Tikrit, Tikrit, Iraq

Abstract
In order to reduce the usage of cement slurry in grouting engineering and consume the tunnel excavation waste soil, a new geopolymeric grouting material (GGM) was prepared by combine completely weathered granite (CWG) and blastfurnace slag (BFS), which can be applied to in-situ grouting treatment of completely weathered granite strata. The results showed CWG could participate in the geopolymerization process, and GGM slurry has the characteristics of short setting time, high flowability, low viscosity, high stone rate and high mechanical strength, and a design method of grouting pressure based on viscosity evolution was proposed. By adjusted the content of completely weathered granite and alkali activator concentration, the setting time of GGM were ranged from 5 to 30 minutes, the flowability was more than 23.5 cm, the stone rate was higher than 90%, the compressive strength of 28 days were 7.8-16.9 MPa, the porosity were below 30%. This provides a novel grouting treatment and utilizing excavated soil of tunnels in the similar strata.

Key Words
completely weathered granite; blast-furnace slag; geopolymer; grouting material; flowability; compressive strength; microstructure

Address
Jian Zhang, Shucai Li, Zhaofeng Li, Hengtian Li, Junqi Du, Yifan Gao, Chao Liu, Yanhai Qi and Wenlong Wang: Geotechnical and Structural Engineering Research Center, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, 250061, China

Abstract
This study aimed to develop reference materials (RMs) that are chemically stable and can simulate the flow characteristics of cement paste. To this end, the candidate components of RMs were selected considering the currently required properties of RMs. Limestone, slag, silica, and kaolin were selected as substitutes for cement, while glycerol and corn syrup were selected as matrix fluids. Moreover, distilled water was used for mixing. To select the combinations of materials that meet all the required properties of RMs, flow characteristics were first analyzed. The results revealed that silica and kaolin exhibited bilateral nonlinearity. When an analysis was conducted over time, slag exhibited chemical reactions, including strength development. Moreover, fungi were observed in all mixtures with corn syrup. On the other hand, the combination of limestone, glycerol, and water exhibited a performance that met all the required properties of RMs. Thus, limestone, glycerol, and water were selected as the components of the RMs. When the influence of each component of the RMs on flow characteristics was analyzed, it was found that limestone affects the yield value, while the ratio of water and glycerol affects the plastic viscosity. Based on this, it was possible to select the mixing ratios for the RMs that can simulate the flow characteristics of cement paste under each mixing ratio. This relationship was established as an equation, which was verified under various mixing ratios. Finally, when the flow characteristics were analyzed under various temperature conditions, cement paste and the RMs exhibited similar tendencies in terms of flow characteristics. This indicated that the combinations of the selected materials could be used as RMs that can simulate the flow characteristics of cement paste with constant quality under various mixing ratio conditions and construction environment conditions.

Key Words
reference material; rheology; cement paste; mixing ratio; flow characteristics

Address
Dong Kyu Lee: National Disaster Management Research Institute, Ulsan, 44538, Republic of Korea
Myoung Sung Choi: Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Dankook University, Gyeonggido Jukjeon-ro 152, Republic of Korea

Abstract
In this study, the impact of ring supports around the shell circumferential has been examined for their various positions along the shell axial length using Rayleigh-Ritz formulation. These shells are stiffened by rings in the tangential direction. For isotropic materials, the physical properties are same everywhere where the laminated and functionally graded materials, they vary from point to point. Here the shell material has been taken as functionally graded material. The influence of the ring supports is investigated at various positions. These variations have been plotted against the locations of ring supports for three values of length-to-diameter ratios. Effect of ring supports with middle layer thickness is presented using the Rayleigh-Ritz procedure with three different conditions. The influence of the positions of ring supports for clamped-clamped is more visible than simply supported and clamped-free end conditions. The frequency first increases and gain maximum value in the midway of the shell length and then lowers down. The Lagrangian functional is created by adding the energy expressions for the shell and rings. The axial modal deformations are approximated by making use of the beam functions. The comparisons of frequencies have been made for efficiency and robustness for the present numerical procedure. Throughout the computation, it is observed that the frequency behavior for the boundary conditions follow as; clamped-clamped, simply supported-simply supported frequency curves are higher than that of clamped-simply curves. To generate the fundamental natural frequencies and for better accuracy and effectiveness, the computer software MATLAB is used.

Key Words
Rayleigh-Ritz; MATLAB; Lagrangian functional; middle layer

Address
Muzamal Hussain: Department of Mathematics, Govt. College University Faisalabad, 38000, Faisalabad, Pakistan
Abdellatif Selmi: Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering in Al-Kharj, Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz University, Al-Kharj 11942, Saudi Arabia; Ecole Nationale d\'Ingenieurs de Tunis (ENIT), Civil Engineering Laboratory. B.P. 37, Le belvedere 1002, Tunis, Tunisia

Abstract
Employment of the wave propagation approach with the combination of Pasternak foundation equation gives birth to the shell frequency equation. Mathematically, the integral form of the Lagrange energy functional is converted into a set of three partial differential equations. A cylindrical shell is placed on the elastic foundation of Pasternak. For isotropic materials, the physical properties are same everywhere, whereas the laminated and functionally graded materials, they vary from point to point. Here the shell material has been taken as functionally graded material. The influence of the elastic foundation, wave number, length and height-to-radius ratios is investigated with different boundary conditions. The frequencies of length-to-radius and height-to-radius ratio are counter part of each other. The frequency first increases and gain maximum value in the midway of the shell length and then lowers down for the variations of wave number. It is found that due to inducting the elastic foundation of Pasternak, the frequencies increases. It is also exhibited that the effect of frequencies is investigated by varying the surfaces with stainless steel and nickel as a constituent material. MATLAB software is utilized for the vibration of functionally graded cylindrical shell with elastic foundation of Pasternak and the results are verified with the open literature.

Key Words
elastic foundation; FGM; MATLAB; Nickel; wave number

Address
Muzamal Hussain: Department of Mathematics, Govt. College University Faisalabad, 38000, Faisalabad, Pakistan
Abdellatif Selmi: Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering in Al-Kharj, Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz University, Al-Kharj 11942, Saudi Arabia; Ecole Nationale d\'Ingenieurs de Tunis (ENIT), Civil Engineering Laboratory. B.P. 37, Le belvedere 1002, Tunis, Tunisia

Abstract
In this paper, vibration attributes of chiral double-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) based on nonlocal elastic shell model have been investigated. The impact of small scale is being perceived by establishing Flügge shell model. The wave propagation is engaged to frame the ruling equations as eigen value system. The influence of nonlocal parameter subjected to different end supports has been overtly examined. A suitable choice of material properties and nonlocal parameter been focused to analyze the vibration characteristics. The new set of inner and outer tubes radii investigated in detail against aspect ratio and length. The dominance of boundary conditions via nonlocal parameter is shown graphically. Whereas for lower aspect ratio the frequencies coincide but as it continues to expand the difference between all respective boundary conditions slightly tend to increase. The results generated furnish the evidence regarding applicability of nonlocal shell model and also verified by earlier published literature.

Key Words
vibration; nonlocal parameter; double-walled CNTs; Flügge shell model

Address
Sehar Asghar: Department of Mathematics, Govt. College University Faisalabad, 38040, Faisalabad, Pakistan
Muhammad N. Naeem: Department of Mathematics, Govt. College University Faisalabad, 38040, Faisalabad, Pakistan
Mohamed Amine Khadimallah: Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University, College of Engineering, Civil Engineering Department, BP 655, Al-Kharj, 11942, Saudi Arabia
Muzamal Hussain: Department of Mathematics, Govt. College University Faisalabad, 38040, Faisalabad, Pakistan
Zafar Iqbal: Department of Mathematics, University of Sargodha, Sargodha, Punjab, Pakistan; Department of Mathematics, University of Mianwali, Punjab, Pakistan
Abdelouahed Tounsi: Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals,
31261 Dhahran, Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia; Materials and Hydrology Laboratory University of Sidi Bel Abbes, Algeria Faculty of Technology Civil Engineering Department, Algeria

Abstract
In an effort to find alternate, environment friendly and sustainable building materials, the scope of possible utilization of iron slag (I-sand), generated as a by-product in iron and steel industries, as fine aggregates in reinforced cement concrete (RCC) made with manufactured sand (M-sand) is examined in this manuscript. Systematic investigations of the physical, mechanical, microstructural and durability properties of I-sand in comparison with RCC made with M-sand have been carried out on various mix designs prepared by the partial/full replacement of I-sand in M-sand. The experimental results clearly indicate the possibility of utilizing iron slag for preparing RCC in constructions without compromising on the property of concrete, durability and performance. This provides an alternate possibility for the effective utilization of industrial waste, which is normally disposed by delivering to landfills, in building materials which can reduce the adverse environmental effects caused by indiscriminate sand mining being carried out to meet the growing demands from construction industry and also provide an economically viable alternative by reducing the cost of concrete production.

Key Words
iron slag; manufactured sand; compressive strength; flexural strength; split-tensile strength; durability

Address
E. Rahmathulla Noufal: Department of Civil Engineering, Government Engineering College, Kozhikode-673 005, India
A.K. Kasthurba: Department of Architecture and Planning, National Institute of Technology, Kozhikode-673601, India
J. Sudhakumar: Department of Civil Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Kozhikode-673601, India
Unnikrishnan Manju: CSIR-Institute of Minerals and Materials Technology, Sachivalaya Marg, Odisha-751 013, India

Abstract
Stress-strain models of fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) confined concrete have been widely investigated; however, the existing load which is always supported by structures during the retrofitting phase, namely \'preload\', has been neglected. Thus, preload effects should be clarified, providing insightful information for FRP retrofitting of structures with preload conditions. Towards this aim, experiments were performed for 27 cylinder concrete specimens with the diameter 150 mm and the height 300 mm. Three specimens were used to test the compressive strength of concrete to compute the preloads 20%, 30% and 40% of the average strength of these specimens. Other 24 specimens were divided into 2 groups; each group included 4 subgroups. Four subgroups were subjected to the above preloads and no preload, and were then wrapped by 2 FRP layers. Similar designation is applied to group 2, but wrapped by 3 FRP layers. All specimens were tested under axial compression to failure. Explosive failure is found to be the characteristic of specimens wrapped by FRP. Experimental results indicated that the preload decreases 12-13% the elastic and second stiffness of concrete specimens wrapped by 2 FRP layers. The stiffness reduction can be mitigated by the increase of FRP layers. Preload negligibly reduces the ultimate force and unclearly affects the ultimate displacement probably due to complicated cracks developed in concrete. A mechanism of preload effects is presented in the paper. Finally, to take into account preload effects, a modification of the widely used model of un-preload FRP confined concrete is proposed and the modified model demonstrated with a reasonable accuracy.

Key Words
preload; FRP; confinement; strengthening; compression; force-displacement relationship

Address
Vui Van Cao: Faculty of Civil Engineering, Ho Chi Minh City University of Technology (HCMUT), 268 Ly Thuong Kiet Street, District 10, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam; Vietnam National University at Ho Chi Minh City (VNU-HCM), Linh Trung Ward, Thu Duc District, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam


Techno-Press: Publishers of international journals and conference proceedings.       Copyright © 2020 Techno-Press
P.O. Box 33, Yuseong, Daejeon 34186 Korea, Tel: +82-42-828-7996, Fax : +82-2-736-6801, Email: info@techno-press.com