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CONTENTS
Volume 9, Number 1, January 2020
 

Abstract
Retrofitting is an alteration of existing member or component of the structure. In civil engineering point of view, it is called strengthening of the old structure. Deterioration of structures may be due to aging, corrosion, failure of joints, earthquake forces, increase in service loads, etc. Such structures need urgent repair, retrofitting and strengthening to avoid collapse, cracking and loss in strength or deflection. Advanced techniques are required to be developed for the repair of structural components to replace conventional techniques. This paper focuses exclusively on torsional behaviour of Reinforced Concrete (RC) beams and retrofitted RC beams wrapped with aramid fiber. Beams were retrofitted with aramid fiber by full wrapping and in the form of 150 mm wide strips at a spacing of 100 mm, 150 mm, 200 mm respectively using epoxy resin and hardener. A total 15 numbers of RC beams of 150 mmx300 mmx1300 mm in size were cast, 3 beams are tested as control specimens, and 12 beams are tested for torsion up to the failure and then retrofitted with aramid fiber. Experimental results are validated with the help of data obtained by finite element analysis using ANSYS. The full wrapping configuration of aramid fiber regains 105% strength after retrofitting. With the increase in spacing of fabric material, torsional strength reduces to 82% with about 45% saving in material.

Key Words
retrofitting; strengthening; RC beams; torsional behaviour; aramid fiber

Address
Sachin B. Kandekar: Department of Civil Engineering, Amrutvahini College of Engineering, Sangamner-422608, Maharashtra, India
Rajashekhar S. Talikoti: Department of Civil Engineering, R. H. Sapat College of Engineering, Management Studies and Research, Nashik-422005, Maharashtra, India

Abstract
The present work looks at the possibilities of recycling more than once demolished concrete as coarse aggregates, to produce new concrete. Different concrete mixes were made with substitutions of 50%, 75% and 100% of recycled concrete aggregates respectively as coarse aggregates. The physico-mechanical characterization tests carried out on the recycled concrete aggregates revealed that they are suitable for use in obtaining a structural concrete. The resulting concrete materials had rheological parameters, compressive strengths and tensile strengths very slightly lower than those of the original concrete even when 100% of two cycles recycled concrete aggregates were used. The durability of the recycled aggregates concrete was assessed through water permeability, water absorption and chemical attacks. The obtained concretes were thought fit for use as structural materials. A linear regression was developed between the strength of the material and the number of cycles of concrete recycling to anticipate the strength of the recycled aggregates concrete. From the results, it appear clear that recycling demolished concrete represents a valuable resource for aggregates supply to the concrete industry and a the same time plays a key role in meeting the challenge for a sustainable development.

Key Words
recycled coarse aggregates; recycled concrete; Rheological parameters; strength; capillary water absorption; water permeability; chemical attacks

Address
Abdessamed Azzaz Rahmani, Mohamed Chemrouk: Faculty of Civil Engineering, University of Sciences and Technology Houari Boumediene (USTHB), Algiers, Algeria
Amina Ammar-Boudjelal: Department of Civil Engineering, University of la Rochelle, 17042 La Rochelle Cedex 1, France

Abstract
Geometric nonlinearity can significantly affect load-carrying capacity of slender columns. Dependence of structural stability on columns necessitates the consideration of second-order effects in the design process of columns, appropriately. On the whole, the design codes present a simplified procedure for second order analysis of slender columns. In this approximate method, the end moments of columns resulted from linear analysis (first-order) are multiplied by the recommended moment amplification factors of codes to achieve magnified moments of the second-order analysis. In the other approach, the equilibrium equations are directly solved for the deformed configuration of structure, so the resulting moments and deflections contain the influence of slenderness and increase more rapidly than do loads. The aim of this study is to evaluate the accuracy of moment amplification factors of Iranian national building code whose provisions are similar to the ACI requirement. Herein, finite element method is used to achieve magnified end moments of reinforced concrete moment resisting frames, and the outcomes are compared with the moments acquired based on the proposed approximate method by Iranian national building code. The results show that the approximate method of Iranian code for calculating magnified moments has significant errors for both unbraced and braced columns.

Key Words
geometric nonlinearity; slender columns; design process; linear analysis; reinforced concrete

Address
Alireza Habibi: Department of Civil Engineering, Shahed University, Tehran, Iran
Mehdi Izadpanah: Department of Civil Engineering, Kermanshah University of Technology, Kermanshah, Iran
Sina Rohani: Department of Civil Engineering, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Iran

Abstract
In this study, polyethylene glycol (PEG) and polyacrylamide (PAM) have been used as self-curing agents to produce self-curing concrete (SC). Compressive strength, ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV), bulk electrical resistivity, chloride ion penetrability, water permeability, and main microstructural characteristics were examined under different curing regimes, and compared to those of the control concrete mixture with no self-curing agents. One batch of a control mixture and one batch of a SC mixture were air-cured in the lab to act as non-water-cured samples. The water curing regimes for the control mixture included continuous water curing for 3, 7, and 28 days and periodical moist curing using wetted burlap for 3 and 7 days. Curing regimes for the SC mixtures included 3 days of water curing and periodical moist curing for 3 and 7 days. SC mixtures showed better microstructure development and durability performance than those of the air-cured control mixture. A short water curing period of 3 days significantly improved the performance of the SC mixtures similar to that of the control mixture that was water cured for 28 days. SC concrete represents a step towards sustainable construction due to its lower water demand needed for curing and hence can preserve the limited water resources in many parts of the world.

Key Words
self-curing concrete; water-soluble polymers; curing regimes; mechanical properties; durability; microstructure

Address
A.S. El-Dieb and T.A. El-Maaddawy: Civil and Environmental Engineering Department, UAE University, P.O. Box 15551, Al Ain, UAE

Abstract
This paper presents an innovative stress-function variational approach in formulating the interfacial shear and normal stresses in an externally bonded concrete joint using carbon fiber-reinforced plastic (CFRP) plies. The joint is subjected to surface traction loadings applied at both ends of the concrete substrate layer. By introducing two interfacial shear and normal stress functions on the CFRP-concrete interface, based on Euler-Bernoulli beam idea and static stress equations of equilibrium, the entire stress fields of the joint were determined. The complementary strain energy was minimized in order to solve the governing equation of the joint. This yields an ordinary differential equation from which the interfacial normal and shear stresses were proposed explicitly, satisfying all the multiple traction boundary conditions. Lamination theory for composite materials was also employed to obtain the interfacial stresses. The proposed approach was validated by the analytic models in the literature as well as through a comprehensive computational code generated by the authors. Furthermore, a numerical verification was carried out via the finite element software ABAQUS. In the end, a scaling analysis was conducted to analyze the interfacial stress field dependence of the joint upon effective issues using the devised code.

Key Words
interfacial stress; bonded joint; CFRP composite; concrete; lamination theory

Address
Hojjat Samadvand and Mehdi Dehestani: Department of Civil Engineering, Babol Noshirvani University of Technology, Babol, Iran

Abstract
In this research article, acid resistance, sulphate resistance and sorptivity of self compacted concrete (SCC) prepared from C&D waste have been discussed. To improve the above properties of self compacted recycled aggregate concrete (SCRAC) along with mechanical and durability properties, different two stage mixing approaches (TSMA and TSMAsfc) were followed. In the proposed two stage mixing approach (TSMAsfc), silica fume, a proportional amount of cement and a proportional amount of water were mixed in premix stage which fills the pores and cracks of recycled aggregate concrete (RAC). The concrete specimen prepared using above mixing approaches were immersed in 1% concentration of sulphuric acid (H2SO4) and magnesium sulphate (MgSO4) solution for 28, 90 and 180 days for evaluating the acid resistance of SCRAC. Experimental results concluded that the proposed two stage mixing approach (TSMAsfc) is most suitable for acid resistance and sulphate resistance in terms of weight loss and strength loss due to the elimination of pores and cracks in the interfacial transition zone (ITZ). In modified two stage mixing approach, the pores and cracks of recycled concrete aggregate (RCA) were filled up and make ITZs of SCRAC stronger. Microstructure analysis was carried out to justify the reason of improvement of ITZs by electron probe micro analyser (EPMA) analysis. X-ray mapping was also done to know the presence of strength contributing elements presents in the concrete sample. It was established that SCRAC with modified mixing approach have shown improved results in terms of acid resistance, sulphate resistance, sorptivity and mechanical properties.

Key Words
recycled aggregate concrete; two stage mixing approach; interfacial transition zone; Sorptivity test; acid resistance of concrete

Address
Puja Rajhans, Nishikant Kisku, Sanket Nayak and Sarat Kumar Panda: Department of Civil Engineering, IIT (ISM) Dhanbad, Jharkhand, India

Abstract
One of the most suitable methods in structural design is seismic separator. Lead-Rubber Bearing (LRB) is one of the most well-known separation systems which can be used in different types of structures. This system mitigates the earthquake acceleration prior to transferring to the structure efficiently. However, the performance of this system in concrete structures with different heights have not been evaluated thoroughly yet. This paper aims to evaluate the performance of LRB separation system in concrete structures with different heights. For this purpose, three, 16, and 23 story concrete structures are equipped by LRB and exposed to a far-field earthquake. Next, a time history analysis is conducted on each of the structures. Finally, the performance of the concrete structures is compared with each other in the term of their response to the earthquakes and the formation of plastic hinges. The results of the paper show that the rate of change in acceleration response and the ratio of drift along the height of 8 and 23 stories concrete structures are more than those of the 16-stories, and the use of LRB reduces the formation of plastic joints.

Key Words
base isolation system; lead-rubber bearing; far-field earthquake; time history analysis; numerical analysis

Address
Liang Luo: Key Laboratory of High Performance Ship Technology (Wuhan University of Technology), Ministry of Education, Wuhan 430070, China; School of transportation, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070, China
Hoang Nguyen: Institute of Research and Development, Duy Tan University, Da Nang 550000, Viet Nam
Hisham Alabduljabbar: Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz University, Al-kharj 11942, Saudi Arabia
Abdulaziz Alaskar: Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, King Saud University, Riyadh 11362, Saudi Arabia
Fahed Alrshoudi: Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, King Saud University, Riyadh 11362, Saudi Arabia
Rayed Alyousef: Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz University, Al-kharj 11942, Saudi Arabia
Viet-Duc Nguyen: Thuyloi University, 175 Tay Son, Dong Da, Hanoi, Vietnam
Hoang-Minh Dang: Division of Construction Computation, Institute for Computational Science, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam; Faculty of Civil Engineering, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

Abstract
The use of spliced reinforcing bars in sustainable concrete members to manage inadequate bars length is a common practical issue which is may be due to some limitations. The lap splicing means two bars overlapped in parallel with specified length called the splice length in order to provide the required bond between the two bars. The bond between sustainable concrete and spliced steel bars is another important issue. The normal strength sustainable concrete specimens of sizes 1700x150x150 mm with tension reinforcement lap spliced were selected according to testing device length limitations. These members were designed to fail in flexure in order to investigate the lap spliced tension bars effect. The selected lap spliced tension bars were of 10 mm size with smooth and deformed surfaces in order to investigate the surface nature accompanied with the splice nature. The sustainable concrete mechanical properties and mix workability were also studied. This study reveals that the effect of number of spliced bars on the response of beams reinforced with smooth bars is found to be more obvious than deformed one. Finite element modeling in three dimensions was carried out for the tested beams using ABAQUS software. A parametric study is carried out using finite elements on considering the following parameters, concrete compressive strength, load type and opening in cross section (hollow section) for weight reduction purposes.The laboratory and numerical results show good agreements in terms of ultimate load and deflection with an average difference of 10% and 15% in ultimate load and deflection respectively.

Key Words
sustainable concrete; beams; experimental test; finite element analysis; lap-spliced

Address
Adel A. Al-Azzawi, Raid A. Daud and Sultan A. Daud: Civil Engineering Department, College of Engineering, Al-Nahrain University, Baghdad, Iraq

Abstract
In this study, we examined the relationship among the rheological properties, workability, and extrudability in the construction of concrete structures using additive manufacturing. We altered the component materials (binder type, water-binder (W/B) ratio, sand ratio) to assess their effect on the rheological properties experimentally. The results indicated that the W/B and sand ratios had the largest effect on the rheological properties. In particular, when the sand ratio increased, it indicated that adjusting the sand ratio would facilitate control over the rheological properties. Additionally, we compared the rheological properties with the results of a traditional workability evaluation, namely the table flow test. This indicated the possibility of inferring the rheological properties by using traditional methods. Finally, we evaluated extrusion quantity according to table flow. The extrusion rate was 350 g/s for a flow of 210 mm and 170 g/s for a flow of 130 mm, indicating that extrusion rate increased as flow increased; however, we concluded that a flow standard of approximately 140-160 mm is suitable for controlling the actual extrusion quantity and rate.

Key Words
3D printing; additive manufacturing; concrete; flowability; extrudability; rheological properties

Address
Hojae Lee: Department of Infrastructure Safety Research, Korea Institute of Civil Engineering and Building Technology, Daehwa-Dong, Goyang-Si, Gyeonggi-Do, 10223, Republic of Korea; School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Yonsei University, Shinchon-dong, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 03722 Republic of Korea
Jang-Ho Jay Kim: School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Yonsei University, Shinchon-dong, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 03722 Republic of Korea
Jae-Heum Moon, Won-Woo Kim, Eun-A Seo: Department of Infrastructure Safety Research, Korea Institute of Civil Engineering and Building Technology, Daehwa-Dong, Goyang-Si, Gyeonggi-Do, 10223, Republic of Korea

Abstract
This paper deal with the critical fluid velocity response of nanocomposite pipe conveying fluid based on numerical method. The pressure of fluid is obtained based on perturbation method. The motion equations are derived based on classical shell theory, energy method and Hamilton\'s principle. The shell is reinforced by nanoparticles and the distribution of them are functionally graded (FG). The mixture rule is applied for obtaining the equivalent material properties of the structure. Differential quadrature method (DQM) is utilized for solution of the motion equations in order to obtain the critical fluid velocity. The effects of different parameters such asCNT nanoparticles volume percent, boundary conditions, thickness to radius ratios, length to radius ratios and internal fluid are presented on the critical fluid velocity response structure. The results show that with increasing the CNT nanoparticles, the critical fluid velocity is increased. In addition, FGX distribution of nanoparticles is the best choice for reinforcement.

Key Words
critical fluid velocity; pipeline; internal fluid; Differential Quadrature Method

Address
M.M. Ghaitani, A. Majidian and V. Shokri: Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sari Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sari, Iran, P.O.B. 4816119318, Sari, Iran


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