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CONTENTS
Volume 11, Number 1, January 2021
 

Abstract
This article discusses the issue of optimizing controller design issues, in which the artificial intelligence (AI) evolutionary bat (EB) optimization algorithm is combined with the fuzzy controller in the practical application of the building. The controller of the system design includes different sub-parts such as system initial condition parameters, EB optimal algorithm, fuzzy controller, stability analysis and sensor actuator. The advantage of the design is that for continuous systems with polytypic uncertainties, the integrated H2/Hc robust output strategy with modified criterion is derived by asymptotically adjusting design parameters. Numerical verification of the time domain and the frequency domain shows that the novel system design provides precise prediction and control of the structural displacement response, which is necessary for the active control structure in the fuzzy model. Due to genetic algorithm (GA), we use a hierarchical conditions of the Hurwitz matrix test technique and the limits of average performance, Hierarchical Fitness Function Structure (HFFS). The dynamic fuzzy controller proposed in this paper is used to find the optimal control force required for active nonlinear control of building structures. This method has achieved successful results in closed system design from the example.

Key Words
intelligent genetic algorithm design; system simulation; fuzzy logic reasoning; evolutionary bat algorithm

Address
Tim Chen: Faculty of Information Technology, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
Robert C. Crosbie: Faculty of Mathematics, Technische Universität Dresden, Dezernat 8, 01062 Dresden, Saxony, Germany
Azita Anandkumarb: Computing and Mathematical Sciences, University of Bath, Bath, BA2 7AY, UK
Charles Melville: Department Electrical & Electronic Engineering, University of Bath, Bath, BA2 7AY, U.K.
Jcy Chan: Department of Artificial Intelligence, University of Maryland, Maryland 20742, USA

Abstract
The present study fabricated polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) fiber-reinforced alkali-activated slag/fly ash (AASF) composites with varying mixture ratios of slag and fly ash. The thermomechanical behaviors of the AASF composites exposed to 200, 400, 600, or 800oC were evaluated by means of compressive strength test, visual observation, and fire resistance tests. Xray diffractometry, mercury intrusion porosimetry, and thermogravimetry tests were performed to analyze the microstructure change of the AASF composites upon exposure to high temperatures. Specimens exhibited a gradual strength loss up to 600oC, while also showing a significant decrease in the strength above 600oC. The fire resistance test revealed the occurrence of an inflection point as indicated by an increase in the internal temperature at around 200oC. In addition, specimens showed the dehydration of C-S-H gel, the presence of akermanite, gehlenite, and anorthite upon exposure to 800oC, which is associated with the formation of macropore population with pores having diameters of 1-3 um and 20-40 um. Visual observation indicated that the PVA fibers mitigated the cracking and/or spalling of the specimens upon exposure to 800oC.

Key Words
alkali-activated material; slag; fly ash; PVA fiber; temperature

Address
J.S. Kim and H.K. Lee: Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Korean Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34141, Republic of Korea

Abstract
In the present experimental study, the high performance hybrid fiber reinforced concrete (HPHFRC) is prepared using the Modified Andreasen and Andersen (A&A) particle packing model. Total of 16 trial mixes of HPHFRC with Indian standard sand (SS) and natural river sand (NS) are prepared to achieve the selection criteria (flow percent>150 and compressive strength>80 MPa). Based on the flow percent and compressive strength criteria, the selected mixes evaluated to study the effect of usage of natural river sand (NS) and the expensive Indian standard sand (SS) on the mechanical, durability, and microstructure property of designed HPHFRC. It has been found that the Modified A&A model is reliable to design the mix for HPHFRC with excellent mechanical, durability, and microstructure properties. In addition to that, a moderate difference in the mechanical and durability properties of NS contained HPHFRC and SS contained HPHFRC is found. Based on the obtained results of NS contained HPHFRC, it can be concluded that the use of natural river sand (NS) can be successfully adopted for the production of HPHFRC, resulted in a reduction of the production cost without compromising the excellent performance of HPHFRC.

Key Words
High Performance Hybrid Fiber Reinforced Concrete (HPHFRC); mix design model; natural sand; standard sand; hybrid steel fibers

Address
Hitesh Gupt, Prem Pal Bansal and Raju Sharma: Department of Civil Engineering, Thapar Institute of Engineering and Technology, Patiala, 147001, India

Abstract
A new type of composite insulated concrete sandwich wall (ICS-wall), which is composed of a triangle truss steel wire network, an insulating layer, and internal and external concrete layers, is proposed. To study the mechanical properties of this new ICS-wall, tensile, compression, and shearing tests were performed on 22 specimens and tensile strength and corrosion resistance tests on 6 triangle truss joints. The variables in these tests mainly include the insulating plate material, the thickness of the insulating plate, the vertical distance of the triangle truss framework, the triangle truss layout, and the connecting mode between the triangle truss and wall and the material of the triangle truss. Moreover, the failure mode, mechanical properties, and bearing capacity of the wall under tensile, shearing, and compression conditions were analyzed. Research results demonstrate that the concrete and insulating layer of the ICS-wall are pulling out, which is the main failure mode under tensile conditions. The ICS-wall, which uses a graphite polystyrene plate as the insulating layer, shows better tensile properties than the wall with an ordinary polystyrene plate. The tensile strength and bearing capacity of the wall can be improved effectively by strengthening the triangle truss connection and shortening the vertical distances of the triangle truss. The compression capacity of the wall is mainly determined by the compression capacity of concrete, and the bonding strength between the wall and the insulating plate is the main influencing factor of the shearing capacity of the wall. According to the tensile strength and corrosion resistance tests of Austenitic stainless steel, the bearing capacity of the triangle truss does not decrease after corrosion, indicating good corrosion resistance.

Key Words
insulated concrete sandwich wall; shear test; tensile test; axial compression test; anti-corrosion test

Address
Xiaomeng Zhang: China Architecture Design & Research Group, Beijing 100044, China
Xueyong Zhang: ANNENG Green Building Science and Technology Co., Ltd., Shijiazhuang 050011, Hebei; China
Wenting Liu: China Architecture Design & Research Group, Beijing 100044, China
Zheng Li: China Architecture Design & Research Group, Beijing 100044, China
Xiaowei Zhang: School of Civil and Transportation Engineering, Hebei University of Technology, China
Yilun Zhou: China Architecture Design & Research Group, Beijing 100044, China

Abstract
Experimental investigation has been conducted to study the effect of using Micro/Nano Silica in presence of steel fibers on improving the static response of reinforced concrete beams. Twenty-one mixtures were prepared with micro silica (MS), Nano silica (NS) and steel fibers (SFs) at different percentages. Cement was replaced by 10% and 15% of Micro silica and 1%, 2% and 3% of Nano silica in the presence of steel fibers at different volume fractions 0%, 1%, and 2%. 258 concrete samples, (126 cubes, 63 cylinders, 63 prisms, and six R.C beams), were investigated experimentally in two stages. The first stage was to investigate the mechanical properties of the prepared mixtures. The second stage was to study the static behavior of R.C beams, using the designed concrete mixtures, under a four-point flexural test. The results showed that replacing cement by (10% MS and 1% NS) produces the optimum mix with a significant improvement in the mechanical properties and the response of R.C beams under static loads. In addition, incorporating steel fibers at different volume fractions have a considerable effect on the flexural toughness of concrete mixes.

Key Words
reinforced concrete; flexural toughness; micro silica; nano silica; steel fibers

Address
Ahmed S. Eisa, Hamdy K. Shehab, Kareem A. El-Awady and Mahmoud T. Nawar: Structural Engineering Department, Zagazig University, Zagazig, 44519, Egypt

Abstract
This research aims to study the utilization of olive waste ash (OWA) in the production of concrete as a partial substitute for cement. Effects of using OWA on the physical and mechanical properties of concrete mixtures have been investigated. This is done by carrying out tests involving the addition of various percentages of OWA to cement (0%, 5%, 10% and 15%). For each percentage, tests were performed on both fresh and hardened concrete; these included slump test, unit weight test and compressive strength test after 7, 28 and 90 days. Durability tests were investigated in solutions containing 5% NaOH and MgSO4 by weight of water. In addition, resistance to high temperatures was tested by subjecting the cubes to high temperatures of up to 170oC. The results of this research indicate that a higher percentage of OWA gives a lower compressive strength and lower workability but higher performance in terms of durability against both different weather conditions and high temperatures.

Key Words
concrete with olive waste ash; durability behavior; high temperatures; mechanical properties

Address
Bassam A. Tayeh: Civil Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Islamic University of Gaza, Gaza, Palestine
Marijana Hadzima-Nyarko: Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture Osijek, Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, V. Preloga 3, 31000 Osijek, Croatia
Abdullah M. Zeyad: Civil Engineering Department, College of Engineering, Jazan University, Jazan, Saudi Arabia
Samer Z. Al-Harazin: Civil Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Islamic University of Gaza, Gaza, Palestine

Abstract
Rice Husk Ash (RHA) geopolymer paste activated by sodium aluminate were characterized by X-ray diffractogram (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersion X-Ray analysis (EDAX)and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Five series of RHA geopolymer specimens were prepared by varying the Si/Al ratio as 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0 and 3.5. The paper focuses on the correlation of microstructure with hardened state parameters like bulk density, apparent porosity, sorptivity, water absorption and compressive strength. XRD analysis peaks indicates quartz, cristobalite and gibbsite for raw RHA and new peaks corresponding to Zeolite A in geopolymer specimens. In general, SEM micrographs show interconnected pores and loosely packed geopolymer matrix except for specimens made with Si/Al of 2.0 which exhibited comparatively better matrix. Incorporation of Al from sodium aluminate were confirmed with the stretching and bending vibration of Si-O-Si and O-Si-O observations from the FTIR analysis of geopolymer specimen. The dense microstructure of SA2.0 correlate into better performance in terms of 28 days maximum compressive strength of 16.96 MPa and minimum for porosity, absorption and sorptivity among the specimens. However, due to the higher water demand to make the paste workable, the value of porosity, absorption and sorptivity were reportedly higher as compared with other geopolymer systems. Correlation regression equations were proposed to validate the interrelation between physical parameters and mechanical strength. RHA geopolymer shows comparatively lower compressive strength as compared to Fly ash geopolymer.

Key Words
rice husk ash; sodium aluminate; XRD; SEM EDAX; FTIR

Address
N. Shyamananda Singh: Department of Civil Engineering, National Institute of Technology Agartala, Tripura, India
Suresh Thokchom: Department of Civil Engineering, Manipur Institute of Technology, Imphal, Manipur, India
Rama Debbarma: Department of Civil Engineering, National Institute of Technology Agartala, Tripura, India

Abstract
Rice Husk Ash (RHA) geopolymer paste activated by sodium aluminate were characterized by X-ray diffractogram (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersion X-Ray analysis (EDAX)and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Five series of RHA geopolymer specimens were prepared by varying the Si/Al ratio as 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0 and 3.5. The paper focuses on the correlation of microstructure with hardened state parameters like bulk density, apparent porosity, sorptivity, water absorption and compressive strength. XRD analysis peaks indicates quartz, cristobalite and gibbsite for raw RHA and new peaks corresponding to Zeolite A in geopolymer specimens. In general, SEM micrographs show interconnected pores and loosely packed geopolymer matrix except for specimens made with Si/Al of 2.0 which exhibited comparatively better matrix. Incorporation of Al from sodium aluminate were confirmed with the stretching and bending vibration of Si-O-Si and O-Si-O observations from the FTIR analysis of geopolymer specimen. The dense microstructure of SA2.0 correlate into better performance in terms of 28 days maximum compressive strength of 16.96 MPa and minimum for porosity, absorption and sorptivity among the specimens. However, due to the higher water demand to make the paste workable, the value of porosity, absorption and sorptivity were reportedly higher as compared with other geopolymer systems. Correlation regression equations were proposed to validate the interrelation between physical parameters and mechanical strength. RHA geopolymer shows comparatively lower compressive strength as compared to Fly ash geopolymer.

Key Words
rice husk ash; sodium aluminate; XRD; SEM EDAX; FTIR

Address
Muhammad Taj: Department of Mathematics, University of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Muzaffarabad, 1300, Azad Kashmir, Pakistan
Mohamed A. Khadimallah: Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University, College of Engineering, Civil Engineering Department, BP 655, Al-Kharj, 16273, Saudi Arabia; Laboratory of Systems and Applied Mechanics, Polytechnic School of Tunisia, University of Carthage, Tunis, Tunisia
Muzamal Hussain: Department of Mathematics, Govt. College University Faisalabad, 38000, Faisalabad, Pakistan
Shaid Mahmood: Department of Mathematics, University of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Muzaffarabad, 1300, Azad Kashmir, Pakistan
Muhammad Safeer: Department of Mathematics, University of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Muzaffarabad, 1300, Azad Kashmir, Pakistan; Department of Mathematics University of Poonch Rawalwkot 12350 Azad Kashmir, Pakistan
Abdullah F. Al Naim : Department of Physics, College of Science, King Faisal University, P.O. Box 400,Al-Ahsa 31982, Saudi Arabia
Manzoor Ahmad: Department of Mathematics, University of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Muzaffarabad, 1300, Azad Kashmir, Pakistan


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