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Volume 1, Number 2, June 2019

A natural frequency optimization of a steering knuckle was performed. It must be strong to support the loads from the road as all the car weight and reactions, in addition to this, it must be designed to prevent resonances with the components around it. The improvements developed for automotive components are evaluated as itself as well as the interaction as a subsystem as well as its interaction in the whole vehicle. We aimed to prevent squeal noise and uncomfortable vibrations between 1 and 3 kHz through optimizing the resonant frequencies of Steering Knuckle and its effect on the components around it as track control arm and disc brake. Optimization was performed modifying the geometry prior to modify the mold. Finite element modal simulations were performed using Ansa, Optistruct and HyperView V14 software. These optimizations were validated with an experimental test using a three-dimensional scanning vibrometer. Results showed that modal optimization can be performed with virtual tools obtaining reliable results.

Key Words
modal analysis; steering knuckle; finite element analysis; noise

Moises Jimenez:
1) Engineering and Science Department, Universidad Iberoamericana Puebla, San Andres Cholula, Puebla, 72810, Mexico
2) Tecnologico de Monterrey, Escuela de Ingenieria y Ciencias, Vía Atlixcayotl 2301, Reserva Territorial Atlixcayotl, Puebla, Puebla, 72453, Mexico
Guillermo Narvaez: Tecnologico de Monterrey, Escuela de Ingenieria y Ciencias, Via Atlixcayotl 2301, Reserva Territorial Atlixcayotl, Puebla, Puebla, 72453, Mexico
Esau Adame and Mario Villasenor: Technical Development, Volkswagen de Mexico, Km 116 Autopista Mexico-Puebla, 72730, Mexico

Rolling-resistance is growingly driving the focus of many tire research due to its significant impact on the vehicle fuel consumption. The finite element (FE) solution is commonly used as a cost-effective and satisfactory prediction tool compared to the experimental approach. Regardless, the FE choice is still an incomplete work especially in predicting the tire rolling-resistance. This paper investigates the implications of decision between linear (prony) and non-linear (parallel rheological framework (PRF)) viscoelastic models on predicting the tire\'s rolling-resistance, in particular, and mechanical comfort in FE under different vertical loadings and inflation pressures. The investigation involved following a different way, based on the hysteresis energy ratio, to obtain the rolling-resistance. The PRF model illustrated a good agreement with the experiments and the literature in the estimation of rolling-resistance, dissipative energy distribution and mechanical comfort in tire\'s structure while prony model had inconsistent and unreasonably small outcomes indicating its insensitivity to rolling.

Key Words
tire; rolling resistance; parallel rheological framework; viscoelasticity; finite element analysis; energy loss

Hamad S. Aldhufairi and Khamis E. Essa: Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT, United Kingdom

This research contributes in studying the configuration of hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) which have been developed and used in modern days. The hybrid topologies that combine multiple power sources with motive force to increase the driving function are also studied. The objectives of this study are to determine the time and frequency domain equations that characterize the relationship between the input, output, and state variables for the forward path of car motive dynamics system. In this paper, a block diagram of HEV forward path with feedback signal and controller gain was proposed while assuming the motor to be an armature controlled direct current. The transfer function and state-space were developed and its stability was analyzed and used to describe the car motive dynamics. Matlab and Simulink were used to simulate the system. The simulation results showed the state-space and transfer function of HEV system with excess motive force of 2650 N. The results clearly indicated that the designed controllers were able to improve the steady-state, transient analysis, and desired output. It was also demonstrated that the step input with proportional-integral-derivative controller was efficient in term of the best transient response with zero steady-state error. While, bode plot graph illustrated that the system was inherently stable.

Key Words
hybrid electric vehicle; classical control; stability analysis; cascade system; frequency domain; modeling and simulation

Fitri Yakub, Hatta Ariff and Zainudin A. Rasid: Malaysia-Japan International Institute of Technology, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 54100, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Abdul Yasser Abd Fatah and Shamsul Sarip: Razak Faculty of Technology and Informatics, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 54100, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Zul Hilmi Che Daud: School of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81300, Johor Bahru, Malaysia

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